Menghavan 0: Swausé In Tengu


 Lesson 0: The Sounds Of The Language

In this preliminary lesson you will learn what the sounds of the language are.

Vowels

Modern Gaulish has five vowels. They can be short or long. These are the short ones. The table shows how they are written, what their phonetic value is, and what they sound like using examples in English and other languages.

vowel phonetic value (IPA) sound examples
a

o

u

e

i

[a]

[o]

[u]

[e]

[i]

pat

pot

put

pet

pit

This table shows the long vowels. They are indicated with diacritics over the vowel, e.g. á is long a.

vowel phonetic value (IPA) sound examples
á

ó

ú

é

í

[a:]

[o:]

[u:]

[e:]

[i:]

part

pole

pool

pay without the final y

peel

Modern Gaulish has five diphthongs. A diphthong is a group of two vowels written and pronounced together. This table shows them.

diphthong phonetic value (IPA) sound examples
ái

ói

úi

éi

au

[a:j]

[o:j]

[u:j]

[e:j]

[au]

bye

boy

brouillard (French)

bay

cow

Consonants

Modern Gaulish has a large number of consonants. The table below shows how they are written, gives their phonetic description, and gives sound examples in English and other languages. It is not possible to provide examples for every sound.

consonant phonetic value (IPA) sound examples
p

t

c

b

d

g

v

dh

gh

f

th

ch

fh

m

w

s

sh

n

r

l

nh

rh

lh

ng

[p]

[t]

[k]

[b]

[d]

[g]

[v]

[ð]

[ɣ]

[f]

[θ]

[x]

[ɸ]

[m]

[w]

[s]

[ʃ]

[n]

[r]

[l]

[xn]

[xr]

[xl]

[ŋ]

pit

tit

kit

boar

door

gore

very

there

* έγώ, ego, modern Greek “I”

fin

thin

* loch, Scottish; ich, German

* f with no tongue on teeth

may

way

sit

shit

nose

rose

lose

* [x] followed by [n]

* [x] followed by [r]

* [x] followed by [l]

sing

Vowel length variation

The length of a vowel can change. In a word of two syllables or more the emphasis will be on the second last syllable. Often this will make the vowel of that syllable long. Examples are given below.

men: to think > vowel /e/ is short

ménu: thought > emphasis on first vowel /e/ which becomes long

menúé: thoughts > emphasis shifts to second last vowel /u/ which becomes long


Menghavan 1: Bréthré – Aman Dhathach – Gweranúé Donach

Lesson 1: Verbs – Present Tense – Personal Pronouns

In the first lesson you will learn how to put a verb in the present tense and how to use it with a personal pronoun.

  1. Verbs in the present tense

Each verb has a basic form or root form, known as a “verbal noun”. It has the same function as the infinitve in English.

Verbal nouns can end in a consonant, in -i, -a, -e, and in just one case in -ó, never in -u. Examples are below:

ápis: to see

men: to think

gwel: to want

gar: to call/

carni: to build

argha: to shine

delghe: to hold

ávó: to do, to make

berwi: to boil

gní: to know

To form the present tense of these verbs an –a is added to the verbal noun in the following ways. Note that vowels in modern Gaulish can be either long or short. Vowel length changes with emphasis. The emphasis is always on the second last syllable. When words are extended the emphasis shifts accordingly.

Verbs on a consonant:

ápis > apísa

men > ména

gwel > gwéla

gar > gára

Verbs on –i:

carni > carna

Verbs on –a:

argha > argha – nothing changes

Verbs on -e:

delghe > delgha

Verbs on -ó exchange the -ó for an -a:

ávó > áva

Verbs on -wi retain the final -i:

berwi > berwía

Verbs on -i where the -i is the only vowel retain the -i:

gní > gnía

Exercises

Put the following verbs into the present tense:

prin (to buy)

ber (to carry)

gal (to be able to do)

brís (to break)

ívi (to drink)

cára (to love)

cinge (to wage war)

ávó (to do, to make)

camwi (to bend, to curve)

lí (to lie down)

  1. Personal pronouns

The personal pronouns when used as subject are as follows:

mi: I

ti: you

é: he

í: she

í: it

ni: we

sú: you pl.

sí: they

There is no difference in the third pronoun plural between the masculine and the feminine form.

In modern Gaulish the personal pronoun follows the verb it accompanies:

apísa mi: I see

ména ti: you think

gwéla é: he wants

gára í: she calls

carna ni: we build

argha sú: you shine

delgha sí: they hold

áva í: it  does- it makes

berwía í: it boils

gnía í: it knows

Exercises

Make the following phrases:

I buy

you carry

he can

she breaks

we drink

you (pl.) love

they wage war

it does, it makes

it bends

it lies down

 

Menghavan 2: Gweranúé Donach Co hUrchatha

Lesson 2: Personal Pronouns As Object

In the second lesson you will learn how to use a pronoun when it is the object of a phrase with a verb.

  1. Personal pronouns as object of an active verb

The object of a sentence is the thing to which something is being done. It is the receiving end of the action performed by the verb.

When personal pronouns are the object of a sentence they can take two different forms. The first form is identical to the form they take when they are the subject of a sentence, except for one. The subject of a sentence is the giving end of the action performed by the verb.

personal pronouns as subject personal pronouns as object
mi: I

ti: you

é: he

í: she

í: it

ni: we

sú: you pl.

sí: they

mi: me

ti: you

é: him

í: her

í: it

ni: us

sú: you pl.

ís: them

Only the third person plural pronoun differs: ís instead of sí.

These pronouns are used when they are the receiving end of an active verb. An active verb is a verb that performs the main action of a phrase. It will have a subject which will be performing the action. It will be in a form that indicates the time and the way the action is being performed.

V = verb

S = subject

O = object

In modern Gaulish a phrase has the standard order Verb-Subject-Order. It is an aspect that is characteristic of the Celtic languages and is not common in English.

Using the verbs that were introduced in lesson 1 we can construct examples:

apísa mi: I see > apísa mi ti: I see you

In the phrase “apísa mi ti” the verb “apísa” comes first, the subject “mi” comes second, and the object “ti” comes third. This is indicated like this:

apísa mi ti

V      S   O

We can see that the verb “apísa” is an active verb because it is in the present tense: it has the present tense ending –a.

Here are more examples:

gára í mi: she calls me

delgha é ni: he holds us

gnía sí sú: they know you (pl.)

When the object pronoun starts with a vowel, such as é, í and ís, and they follow a subject pronoun, that object pronoun receives an extra letter ch- at the start. This letter ch is pronounced like the –ch in the Scottish word “loch”.

apísa mi chí: I see her

ména mi chí: I think it

gwéla í ché: she wants him

áva é chí: he does it

gnía sú chís: you (pl.) know them

gára í chís: she calls them

Exercises

Construct the following phrases with the verbs given above and underneath:

prin (to buy)

ber (to carry)

brís (to break)

ívi (to drink)

cára (to love)

ávó (to do, to make)

camwi (to bend, to curve)

lí (to lie down)

I buy it:

you carry him:

he breaks it:

she drinks it:

we love them:

you (pl.) bend us:

they call you (pl.):

she sees me:

he knows her:

she wants you:

You can check your answers on the last page of this lesson.

  1. Personal pronouns as object of a verbal noun

The verbal noun is the basic root form of the verb, called infinitive in English.

It is easiest to think of the verbal noun of modern Gaulish as the –ing form of the English verb.

E.g. can: to sing > can: “singing”

cána mi chí: I sing it

When the personal pronouns are the object of a verbal noun, they take on a different form:

mi > imí

ti > ithí

é > iché

í > ichí

ni > iní

sú > isú

ís > ichís

When a verbal noun is used in a phrase with an active verb it comes immediately after the subject:

gwéla mi can: I want to sing

In this phrase the verbal noun is the object of the active verb:

gwéla mi can

V        S    O

If we think of the verbal noun as the –ing form of the verb, we could literally translate this as:

want I singing (> “I want singing”)

V      S   O

If we use a personal pronoun to be the object of the verbal noun we use the special form described above:

gwéla mi can ichí: I want to sing it

In this phrase the two words “can ichí” become the new object of the phrase.

gwéla mi can ichí

V       S    [O       ]

The above phrase can be literally translated as “I want singing of-it”.

The particle i- that the pronouns are attached to indicates possession of something:

imí: of-me

ithí: of-you

iché: of-him

ichí: of-her

ichí: of-it

iní: of-us

isú: of-you pl.

ichís: of-them

The phrase “can ichí” translates as “singing of-it”. If we add an imaginary definite article [the] to the English version it makes sense:

can ichí: [the] singing of-it > gwéla mi can ichí: I want [the] singing of-it

Exercises

Make the following phrases, using the verbs given above:

I want to see it:

you want to hold her:

he wants to know you:

she wants to love him:

it can break me:

we can buy them:

you (pl.) can carry us:

they can know you (pl.):

you (pl.) can do it:

You can check your answers below.

Answers

Exercises 1

I buy it: prína mi chí

you carry him: béra ti ché

he breaks it: brisa é chí

she drinks it: íva í chí

we love them: cára ni chís

you (pl.) bend us: camwía sú ni

they call you (pl.): gára sí sú

she sees me: apísa í mi

he knows her: gnía é chí

she wants you: gwéla í ti

Exercises 2

I want to see it: gwéla mi ápis ichí

you want to hold her: gwéla ti delghe ichí

he wants to know you: gwéla é gní ithí

she wants to love him: gwéla í cára iché

it can break me: gála í brís imí

we can buy them: gála ni prin ichís

you (pl.) can carry us: gála sú ber iní

they can know you (pl.): gála sí gní isú

you (pl.) can do it: gála sú ávó ichí

                                                                                                          

Menghavan 3: Anúé – Téith – In hAmosanal

Lesson 3: Nouns – Possession – The Article

In the third lesson you will learn what a noun is, how it is possessed, and what the article is.

  1. Nouns

The word “noun” means “name”. It is a word that refers to anything that can have a name, such as a person, place, thing, state or quality. In lesson 1 and 2 we learned about subjects and objects. Nouns are things that can be subjects or objects of a sentence.

e.g.:

gwir: man

cun: dog

ép: horse

cánu: song

ménu: thought

coch: leg

duvr: water

pen: head

There is no indefinite article like English “a, an” in modern Gaulish:

gwir: man

gwir: a man

cun: dog

cun: a dog

We can use the verbs we learned in the previous lessons to construct sentences where the subject and the object are nouns instead of pronouns:

gára gwir cun: a man calls a dog

V      S      O

apísa cun ép: a dog sees a horse

cána gwir cánu: a man sings a song

ména gwir ménu: a man thinks a thought

Exercises:

Construct the following phrases with the verbs given in the previous lessons and the nouns given above and underneath:

ben: woman

gnath: child

mapath: boy

geneth: girl

curu: beer

cuchul: hat

a man buys a beer:

a woman holds a child:

a boy wants a hat:

a girl sings a song

a horse drinks water:

a dog breaks a leg:

a child loves a horse:

a man sees a woman:

a horse carries a boy:

a woman calls a dog:

You can check your answers on the last page of this lesson.

  1. Possession

In lesson 2 we saw that when a pronoun was used as an object it had a special possession particle i-. This particle is not used with anything else, only with the pronoun. When we use a noun we just replace the pronoun and the particle with a noun:

cána mi cánu: I sing a song

gwéla mi can ichí: I want to sing it

gwéla mi can cánu: I want to sing a song

The phrase “can cánu” means “[the] singing of a song”. The English word [the] is not used.

This phrase has two nouns: 1. the verbal noun “can”. 2. the noun “cánu”. In this phrase the first noun “can” is possessed by the second noun “cánu”. In English this is indicated by the word “of”. In modern Gaulish this is indicated by the position of the word: the second word possesses the first word.

The same can be done with any two nouns:

curu gwir: a beer of a man [a man’s beer]

gnath ben: a child of a woman [a woman’s child]

ép geneth: a horse of a girl [a girl’s horse]

Exercises

Using the words learned in all the lessons make the following phrases:

a leg of a dog [a dog’s leg]:

a dog of a man [a man’s dog]:

a head of a horse [a horse’s head]:

a hat of a woman [a woman’s hat]:

a thought of a child [a child’s thought]:

a song of a girl [a girl’s song]:

a horse of a boy [a boy’s horse]:

a man of a woman [a woman’s man]:

a child of a man [a man’s child]:

a hat of a child [a child’s hat]:

  1. The Article

Modern Gaulish has one article: “in”. It does not change for any reason.

e.g.:

in gwir: the man

in ép: the horse

in mapath: the boy

in curu: the beer

in pen: the head

in duvr: the water

The article “in” can be used in cases of possession. It can only be used with the second noun, which is the one possessing the first noun. The first noun can never have the article in front of it.

e.g.:

cun gwir: a dog of a man [a man’s dog]

cun in gwir: a dog of the man [the man’s dog]

The English phrase between brackets […] shows a very good translation of the modern Gaulish phrase. It only uses one article and can only ever use one article. It is not possible to say “the man’s the dog”.

The second noun possesses the first noun. The second noun is the only noun that can have the article.

Exercises

Construct the following phrases, using all the words learned so far:

the head of the horse:

the leg of the dog:

the beer of the man:

the hat of the boy:

the water of the horse”

the song of the boy:

the thought of the man:

the horse of the song:

the dog of the boy:

the hat of the horse:

You can check your answers below.

Answers

Exercises 1

a man buys a beer: prína gwir curu

a woman holds a child: delgha ben gnath

a boy wants a hat: gwéla mapath cuchul

a girl sings a song: cána geneth cánu

a horse drinks water: íva ép duvr

a dog breaks a leg: brísa cun coch

a child loves a horse: cára gnath ép

a man sees a woman: apísa gwir ben

a horse carries a boy: béra ép mapath

a woman calls a dog: gára ben cun

Exercises 2

a leg of a dog [a dog’s leg]: coch cun

a dog of a man [a man’s dog]: cun gwir

a head of a horse [a horse’s head]: pen ép

a hat of a woman [a woman’s hat]: cuchul ben

a thought of a child [a child’s thought]: ménu gnath

a song of a girl [a girl’s song]: cánu geneth

a horse of a boy [a boy’s horse]: ép mapath

a man of a woman [a woman’s man]: gwir ben

a child of a man [a man’s child]: gnath gwir

a hat of a child [a child’s hat]: cuchul gnath

Exercises 3

the head of the horse: pen in ép

the leg of the dog: coch in cun

the beer of the man: curu in gwir

the hat of the boy: cuchul in mapath

the water of the horse: duvr in ép

the song of the boy: cánu in mapath

the thought of the man: ménu in gwir

the horse of the song: ép in cánu

the dog of the boy: cun in mapath

the hat of the horse: cuchul in ép

                                                                                                          

Menghavan 4: Alghnas Anúé

 Lesson 4: Gender Of Nouns

In the fourth lesson you will learn how to determine the gender of nouns.

Gender Of Nouns

In modern Gaulish all nouns have a gender, which is either masculine or feminine. If the meaning of the noun indicates a gender, then that noun is that gender:

gwir: man

ben: woman

mapath: boy

geneth: girl

map: son

dúithir: daughter

áther: father

máthir: mother

moth: penis

tuthu: vagina

If the meaning of a noun does not indicate a gender, its gender is determined by the last vowel. If the last vowel is /a/ or /i/ the noun is feminine.

lam: hand > fem.

bis: finger > fem

tír: land > fem

cnam: bone > fem

If the last vowel is /e/, /o/ or /u/ the noun is masculine.

pen: head > masc.

mór: sea > masc.

cánu: song > masc.

tráieth: foot: masc.

coch: leg: masc.

curu: beer > masc.

The –i in the diphthongs –ái-, -éi-, -ói- and –úi- is not a vowel, it is a semi-consonant, like /y/ in English. It does not count as a vowel, and its presence does not make a noun’s gender feminine:

brói: country > last vowel is /o/, the –i is the semi-consonant > masc.

mái: place, plain > last vowel is /a/ > fem.

téi: house > last vowel is /e/ > masc.

gwólúith: strain > last vowel is /u/ > masc.

Some nouns end in a double consonant where the last consonant is l, n or r. When pronounced there is a dull indistinct sound between the second last consonant and the l, n or r. This sound is called schwa, and is represented by the symbol [ǝ]. It is not considered a vowel and is not written. It does not affect the gender of a noun. The gender of such a noun is determined by the last vowel before the schwa:

sédhl: seat > last vowel is /e/ > masc.

sparn: thorn > last vowel is /a/ > fem

livr: book > last vowel is /i/ > fem.

Some nouns end in a diphthong followed by a double consonant where the last consonant is l, n or r. The gender of these nouns is determined by the last vowel before the –i of the diphthong:

anéithl: protection > last vowel is /e/ > masc.

lúithr: struggle > last vowel is /u/ > masc.

bóithl: hit > last vowel is /o/ > masc.

amáithl: service > last vowel is /a/ > fem.

Nouns of animals are masculine by default, even if the vowels are /a/ or /i/:

garan: heron > masc.

cun: dog > masc.

lóern: fox > masc.

ép: horse > masc.

caval: [draught] horse > masc.

bó: cow [generic name for cattle]

These nouns can be made feminine by adding the suffix –is:

garanis: female heron

cunis: bitch

lóernis: vixen

épis: mare (also casich)

cavalis: female draught horse

Nouns indicating human functions or activities are also masculine by default:

drúidh: scholar > masc.

gwerchovreth: magistrate > masc.

tiern: boss, chief > masc.

dan: official, manager > masc.

These nouns can also be made feminine by adding the suffix –is:

drúidhis: female scholar

gwerchovrethis: female magistrate

tiernis: female boss, chief

danis: female official, manager

Exercises

Determine the gender of the following nouns:

car: car

sesa: chair

roth: wheel

aríthis: table

dulu: paper

cumlath: plate

cladhal: knife

gaval: fork

bóthéi: stable

bochwídhu: spoon

ethn: bird

táru: bull

amáiath: servant

cerdhíath: worker

menrodhiath: teacher

gnisáiath: student

pethlói: stuff

pren: tree

bil: tree trunk

clétha: ladder

cilurn: bucket

scothir: shovel

cerdhl: work

tráith: beach

crósu: wave

sir: star

nem: sky

brí: hill

brói: country

bélói: culture

tengu: language

tarinch: nail (fastening implement)

cingeth: warrior

delgheth: holder

druthas: courage

dumnas: darkness

échal: hoof

You can check your answers below.

Answers

car: car > f

sesa: chair > f

roth: wheel > m

aríthis: table > f

dulu: paper > m

cumlath: plate > f

cladhal: knife > f

gaval: fork > f

bóthéi: stable > m

bochwídhu: spoon > m

ethn: bird > m

táru: bull > m

amáiath: servant > m

cerdhíath: worker > m

menrodhiath: teacher > m

gnisáiath: student > m

pethlói: stuff > m

pren: tree > m

bil: tree trunk > f

clétha: ladder > f

cilurn: bucket > m

scothir: shovel > f

cerdhl: work > m

tráith: beach > f

crósu: wave > m

sir: star > f

nem: sky > m

brí: hill > f

brói: country > m

bélói: culture > m

tengu: language > m

tarinch: nail (for hammering) > f

cingeth: warrior > m

delgheth: holder > m

druthas: courage > f

dumnas: darkness > f

échal: hoof > f

                                                                                                          

Menghavan 5: Rithiúnan In Elwachídhu

Lesson 5: Plural Formation

In the fifth lesson you will learn how to form the plural of nouns.

Plural Of Nouns

The plural of the most nouns is formed by adding the plural suffix –é to the noun.

gwir > gwir + -é

mapath > mapath + -é

Because it is an open vowel it causes the emphasis to shift one place closer to the end of the word. Where the plural ending is not separated from the previous syllable by more than one consonant the vowel of that syllable before the ending –é becomes long as well as emphasised.

gwir > gwíré (men)

mapath > mapáthé (boys)

geneth > genéthé (girls)

map > mápé (sons)

dúithir > dúithíré (daughters)

If the plural ending is separated from the previous syllable by more than one consonant the vowel of that sylable is short.

ethn: bird > ethné: birds

carch: rock > carché: rocks

If a word ends in a vowel the ending –é follows immediately after that vowel, making that vowel emphasised and long.

cánu: song > canúé: songs

Most plurals in Galáthach are formed in this way. There are two exceptions only:

Plural Of Woman

The plural of the word for woman is different.

ben: woman > mná: women

This is attested as such in Old Gaulish.

Plural Of Natural Pairs

The plural of things that naturally occur as pairs is formed by adding the prefix dá-, which means “two”.

óp: eye > dáóp: eyes

coch: leg > dáchoch: legs

lam: hand > dálam: hands

For the word aus “ear” the prefix dá- becomes shortened to d-.

aus: ear > daus: ears

In cases where these things occur in numbers other than two the normal plural suffix –é is used.

ópé damathal: [the] eyes of a spider

> spiders have eight eyes

coché ép: [the] legs of a horse

> horses have four legs

ópé gwíré: the eyes of men

> several men together have more than two eyes

In cases where things are referred to that are not of natural formation and may or may not come in pairs, the normal plural suffix –é is used.

lamé gwepór: the hands of a clock

> a clock is not a natural creature, and there may be more than two hands on a clock, e.g. hours, minutes, seconds

Plural Of Collectivity

A great number of things that is commonly considered as one whole is indicated by the suffix –lói.

gwep: word > gweplói: vocabulary

> gweplóié: vocabularies

sir: star > sirlói: constellation

> sirlóié: constellations

Plural After Numbers

The plural is not used after numbers. Nouns stay in the singular.

ép: a horse > pethr ép: four horses

nóith: night > dech nóith: ten nights

Exercises

  1. Put the following words into the plural:

car (car) >

sesa (chair) >

roth (wheel) >

aríthis (table) >

dulu (paper) >

cumlath (plate) >

cladhal (knife) >

gaval (fork) >

bóthéi (stable) >

bochwídhu (spoon) >

cilurn (bucket) >

cerdhl (work) >

tarinch (nail) >

crósu (wave) >

brí (hill) >

coch (leg) >

aus (ear) >

dós (arm) >

durn (fist) >

  1. Construct the right plural:

legs of a woman >

ears of a girl >

arms of a boy >

eyes of a man >

legs of a dog >

ears of a horse >

arms of a river >

eyes of a crab >

legs of girls >

ears of men >

arms of women >

eyes of boys >

  1. Use the following numbers to construct plural phrases:

dá: two

trí: three

pethr: four

pimp: five

five teachers >

four birds >

three bulls >

two buckets >

You can check your answers below.

Answers:

car (car) > cáré

sesa (chair) > sesáé

roth (wheel) > róthé

aríthis (table) > arithísé

dulu (paper) > dulúé

cumlath (plate) > cumláthé

cladhal (knife) > cladhálé

gaval (fork) > gaválé

bóthéi (stable) > bóthéié [/o/ of bó stays long because it is etymologically determined]

bochwídhu (spoon) > bochwidhúé

cilurn (bucket) > cilurné

cerdhl (work) > cerdhlé

tarinch (nail) > tarinché

crósu (wave) > crosúé

brí (hill) > bríé

coch (leg) > cóché

aus (ear) > ausé

dós (arm) > dósé

durn (fist) > durné

legs of a woman > dáchoch ben

ears of a girl > daus geneth

arms of a boy > dádhós mapath

eyes of a man > dáóp gwir

legs of a dog > cóché cun

ears of a horse > ausé ép

arms of a river > dósé ávon

eyes of a crab > ópé carchu

legs of girls > cóché genéthé

ears of men > ausé gwíré

arms of women > dósé mná

eyes of boys > ópé mapathé

five teachers > pimp menrodhíath

four birds > pethr ethn

three bulls > tri táru

two buckets > dá cilurn

                                                                                                          

Menghavan 6: Anúé Benin Can in hAmosanal – Gwerthanálé Coswaus Anolsam

 

Lesson6: Feminine Nouns With The Article – Initial Consonant Mutations

In the sixth lesson you will learn what happens to feminine nouns after the article.

Feminine Nouns And The Article

When feminine nouns are preceded by the article “in” their initial consonant changes according to regular patterns. This change is what marks the nouns as feminine.

par > in bar (cauldron – the cauldron)

taran > in daran (storm – the storm)

carch > in garch (rock – the rock)

ben > in ven (woman – the woman)

dúithir > in dhúithir (daughter – the daughter)

glan > in ghlan (river bank – the river bank)

máthir > in wáthir (mother – the mother)

sir > in shir (star – the star)

spáthl > in ‘páthl (story – the story)

nath > in nhath (fate – the fate)

rath > in rhath (fern – the fern)

latha > in latha (swamp – the swamp)

fich > in fhich (fig – the fig)

The semi-vowel i- (/y/ in English, [j]) is prefixed with a ch’:

iar > in ch’iar (chicken – the chicken)

Vowels are prefixed with a h-:

aval > in haval (apple – the apple)

épis > in hépis (mare – the mare)

úlidh > in húlidh (feast – the feast)

ídh > in hídh (chain – the chain)

oghran > in hoghran (frost – the frost)

If the nouns are in the plural exactly the same thing happens:

páré > in báré

taráné > in daráné

carché > in garché

mná > in wná

dúithíré > in dhúithíré

gláné > in ghláné

Initial Consonant Mutation Changes

The changes shown above are regular, they happen like that all the time. They are summarised below:

p > b

t > d

c > g

b > v

d > dh

g > gh

m > w

s > sh if followed by a wowel

s > ‘ [nothing] if followed by a consonant

n > nh

r > rh

l > lh

f > fh

i- > ch’i- if followed by a vowel

i- > hi- if followed by a consonant

a > ha

e > he

u > hu

o > ho

Some of these sounds are unusual.

dh = as in English the, there

gh = as in Greek έγώ (I, me), Breton delc’h (to hold). The sound is called “voiced velar

fricative”. Like a Scottish –ch (as in loch) but said with a “thick voice” (i.e. voiced).

sh = as in English ship

h- = as in English house

ch’ = as in Scottish loch

nh = ch- as in Scottish loch, followed by –n > sounds like chn-.

rh = ch- as in Scottish loch, followed by –r > sounds like chr-.

lh = ch- as in Scottish loch, followed by –l > sounds like chl-.

fh = an /f/ produced without the tongue touching the teeth. The sound is called “voiceless bilabial fricative”.

Of these sounds h-, sh-, fh-, nh-, rh- and lh- only ever occur as initial consonant mutations.

Exercises

Put the article in front of the following words and change the consonants if necessary.

pan (glas, cup) >

penálé (chapters) >

tal (front) >

támé (classes) >

cái (hedge) >

calghé (points) >

bach > burden

baláné (brooms) >

daghl (torch) >

dáré (rages) >

gaval (fork) >

gnáthé (children) >

fich (fig) >

fíché >

mái (place) >

máné (necks) >

sachrap (evil eye) >

sálé (sheds) >

scáth (shadow) >

spríé (twigs) >

ial (clearing) >

iatháné (loans) >

nan (hunger) >

nascálé (rings) >

ran (part) >

ratháné (guarantees) >

lam (hand) >

láné (fields) >

áchn (milk) >

avanché (water spirits) >

ili (ivy) >

íthwéráné (distributions) >

ódhan (smell) >

olchraváné (descriptions) >

uchan (rise) >

uláé (powders) >

échal (hoof) >

echwichnáé (losses) >

You check your answers below.

Answers

pan (glas, cup) > in ban

penálé (chapters) > in benálé

tal (front) > in dal

támé (classes) > in dámé

cái (hedge) > in gái

calghé (points) > in galghé

bach (burden) > in vach

baláné (brooms) > in valáné

daghl (torch) > in dhaghl

dáré (rages) > in dháré

gaval (fork) > in ghaval

gnáthé (children) > in ghnáthé

fich (fig) > in fhich

fíché > in fhíché

mái (place) > in wái

máné (necks) > in wáné

sachrap (evil eye) > in shachrap

sálé (sheds) > in shálé

scáth (shadow) > in ‘cáth

spríé (twigs) > in ‘príé

ial (clearing) > in ch’ial

iatháné (loans) > in ch’iatháné

nan (hunger) > in nhan

nascálé (rings) > in nhascálé

ran (part) > in rhan

ratháné (guarantees) > in rhatháné

lam (hand) > in lham

láné (fields) > in lháné

áchn (milk) > in háchn

avanché (water spirits) > in havanché

ili (ivy) > in hili

íthwéráné (distributions) > in híthweráné

ódhan (smell) > in hódhan

olchraváné (descriptions) > in holchraváné

uchan (rise) > in huchan

uláé (powders) > in huláé

échal (hoof) > in héchal

echwichnáé (losses) > in hechwichnáé

                                                                                                          

Menghavan 7: Achathéné

                                                                                                                

Lesson 7: Adjectives – The Verb To Be

In the seventh lesson you will learn about adjectives, and how to use the verb “to be”.

Adjectives

An adjective is a word that describes a quality or a characteristic of a noun.

sen: old

ióinch: young

sír: long

bir: short

már: big

méi: small

ardhu: high

íth: low

duv: black

gwin: white

galv: fat

dái: good

druch: bad

There are different kinds of adjectives. The ones listed above are all natural adjectives. Adjectives can also be formed from other words by using suffixes and prefixes.

The suffix -ach

The suffix –ach can be used to make an adjective from another word, most usually a noun.

caran: friend > caranach: friendly

carath: love > caráthach: loveable

nerth: strength > nerthach: strong

caun: owl > caunach: owlish

barn: judgement > barnach: judgemental

achaun: stone > achaunach: stony

The suffix –ch

The suffix –ch is similar to the suffix –ach. It is used for words ending on a diphthong in –i or on –u, where –ach would be impractical.

grau: sand > grauch: sandy

téi: house > téich: domestic

The suffix -ídhu

The suffix –ídhu is used for words that end on –ch, to avoid doubling up of the –ch- sound.

boch: mouth > bochídhu: mouthy

coch: leg > cochidhu: leggy

carch: rock > carchídhu: rocky

bruch: heather > bruchídhu: heathery

The suffix -in

The suffix –in is only used to describe qualities of living creatures, people, animals etc.

bledh: wolf > bledhin: wolf-like (lupine)

gwir: man > gwirin: masculine

ben: woman > benin: feminine

ép: horse > épin: equine

cun: dog > cunin: canine

ernu: eagle > ernúin: aquiline

The prefixes su- and du-

The prefixes su- (good) and du- (bad) can be attached to nouns to create adjectives.

áiedh: face > su+áiedh = good looking

> du+ áiedh = ugly

If the emphasis in these constructions is not on the vowel /u/ of the prefixes, they become sw- and dw-

> swáiedh: good looking

> dwáiedh: ugly

Position of the adjective

An adjective always follows the nouns it says something about.

gwir: man > gwir caranach: a friendly man

mapath: boy > mapath méi: a little boy

cun: dog > cun duv: a black dog

ép: horse > ép gwin: a white horse

Mutation of the adjective

If an adjective says something about a feminine noun it undergoes mutation of its initial consonant. This is how gender is indicated.

ben: woman

tech: beautiful

> ben dech: a beautiful woman

épis: a mare

áchu: fast

> épis háchu: a fast mare

geneth: girl

gwimp: pretty

> geneth chwimp

The adjective does not change for the plural.

in ghenéthé chwimp: the pretty girls

in wná dech: the beautiful women

in gwíré galv: the fat men

The verb “to be”

The verb “to be” is the only irregular verb in modern Gaulish.

The verbal root (or infinitive) is “bis”.

> gwéla mi bis láen = I want to be happy

The present tense form is “esi”. It does not take an –a.

> Esi mi láen = I am happy

Exercises

Construct the following sentences. You can check your answers at the end of the lesson.

The horse is big >

The dog is fat >

the woman is young >

the man is old >

the girl is small >

the stone is short >

the house is long >

the judgement is bad >

the owl is low >

the sand is white >

the mare is friendly >

the mouth is big >

the wolfish man >

the equine woman >

the young girl >

the fat boy >

the high eagle >

the low stone >

the black rock >

the white heather >

the ugly mouth >

the long leg >

the strong horse >

the bad love >

the young girls see the white horses >

the old men call the fat dogs >

the friendly women want the little boys >

the big dogs love the black stones >

the little girls hold the owlish dogs >

the bad boys break the long stones >

Answers

The horse is big > esi in ép már

The dog is fat > esi in cun galv

the woman is young > esi in ven ch’ióinch

the man is old > esi in gwir sen

the girl is small > esi in gheneth wéi

the stone is short > esi in achaun bir

the house is long > esi in téi sír

the judgement is bad > esi in varn dhruch

the owl is low > esi in caun íth

the sand is white > esi in grau gwin

the mare is friendly > esi in hépis garanach

the mouth is big > esi in boch már

the wolfish man > in gwir bledhin

the equine woman > in ven hépin

the young girl > in gheneth ch’ióinch

the fat boy > in mapath galv

the high eagle > in ernu ardhu

the low stone > in achaun íth

the black rock > in garch dhuv

the white heather > in bruch gwin

the ugly mouth > in boch dwáiedh

the long leg > in coch sír

the strong horse > in ép nerthach

the bad love > in garath druch

the young girls see the white horses > apísa in ghenéthé ch’ióinch in épé gwin

the old men call the fat dogs > gára in gwíré sen in cúné galv

the friendly women want the little boys > gwéla in wná garanach in mapáthé méi

the big dogs love the black rocks > cára in cúné már in garché dhuv

the little girls hold the owlish dogs > delgha in ghenéthé wéi in cúné caunin

the bad boys break the long stones > brísa in mapáthe druch in achauné sír

                                                                                                          

Menghavan 8: Rivrethré

                                                                                                                

Lesson 8: Adverbs

In the eighth lesson you will learn about adverbs.

Adverbs

An adverb is a word that describes a quality or a characteristic of a verbal action.

English examples are: quickly, quietly, calmly, naturally, normally. In English they are usually formed with the suffix –ly.

In Galáthach adverbs are formed by placing the particle “in” in front of an adjective. The adjective undergoes mutation of its initial consonant.

áchu: quick

in háchu: quickly

áva mi chí: I do it

> áva mi chí in háchu: I do it quickly

tau: quiet

in dau: quietly

spá í chí: she says it

> spá í chí in dau: she says it quietly

aram: calm

in haram: calm

réna in avon: the river flows

> réna in avon in haram: the river flows calmly

amvíthach: natural

in hamvíthach: naturally

gwóra cráré mel: bees produce honey

> gwóra cráré mel in hamvíthach

suves: normal

in shuves: normally

né chwergha í co shé: she doesn’t act like that

> né chwergha í co shé in shuves

Position of the adverb

The adverb always follows the verb as closely as possible, after the subject and object of the phrase.

Gwóra cráré mel in hamvíthach // “produce bees honey naturally”

Verb   Sub. Obj.    Adverb               V          S     O          Adv

Exercises

Construct the adverbial form of the following adjectives. You can check your answers at the end of the lesson.

cóil (narrow) >

lithan (wide) >

dianauch (poor) >

téithwár (wealthy) >

ardhu (high) >

íth (low) >

pethrarpenach (square) >

róthach (round) >

dái (good) >

druch (bad) >

Answers

cóil > in góil (narrowly)

lithan > in lhithan (widely)

dianauch > in dhianauch (poorly)

téithwár > in déithwár (wealthily)

ardhu > in hardhu (highly)

íth > in híth (lowly)

pethrarpenach > in betharpenach (squarely)

róthach > in rhothach (roundly)

dái > in dhái (well)

druch > in dhruch (badly)

Menghavan 9: Gwepráié

                                                                                                                

Lesson 9: Prepositions

In the nineth lesson you will learn about prepositions. A preposition is a word that provides information about the location, situation or position of something.

Prepositions

All prepositions in modern Gaulish cause initial consonant mutation on the word that follows them.

esi: is

ép: horse

anel: underneath

pren: tree

> esi ép anel bren: there is a horse underneath a tree (litt. “a horse is underneath a tree”)

sédhi: sit

gwir: man

ur: against

carch: rock

> sédha gwir ur garch: a man sits against a rock

esi: is

gwolth: hair

en: in

iuth: soup

> esi gwolth en ch’iuth: there is a hair in a soup

esi: am

mi: I

e: from

tóth: people

ríu: free

> esi mi e dóth ríu: I am from a free people

áia: go

í: she

a: to

tráith: beach

> áia í a dráith: she goes to a beach

Prepositions do not cause mutations on the article “in” or on possessive pronouns

> esi ép gwó in pren

> esi gwolth en mó ch’iuth: there is a hair in my soup

With personal pronouns

Prepositions fuse with personal pronouns:

can: with

mi: I

> canim: with me

gwer: on

ti: you

> gwerith: on you

nes: near

ni: we

> nesin: near us

Patterns

Prepositions fuse with personal pronouns according to regular patterns. There are four different categories for these patterns.

  1. Prepositions ending in consonants

These are:

can, ar, ern, ur, cin, ós, gwer, en, tar, am, ér, échan, enther, uchel, anel

(with, before, behind, against, after, on, in, through, about, around, without, between, above, below)

These take the following endings:

-im, -ith, -é, -í, -in, -sú, -ís

canim: with me

canith: with you

cané: with him

caní: with her

canin: with us

cansú: with you (pl.)

canís: with them

The emphasis in these forms falls on the last syllable:

can’im: with me

  1. Prepositions ending in vowels

These are:

ri, di, tré, co, éithra, anó, echó (for, off, across, than/as, beyond, inside, outside)

These take the following endings:

-em, -eth, -ché, -chí, -en, -sú, -chís

riem: for me

rieth: for you

riché: for him

richí: for her

rien: for us

risú: for you (pl.)

richís: for them

The preposition “tré” takes a special form of this. It adds an –i- to the front of the 1st, 2nd and 5th form: –iem, –ieth, -ché, -chí, -ien, -sú, -chís:

tréiem: across me

tréieth: across you

tréché: across him

tréchí: across her

tréien: across us

trésú: across you (pl.)

tréchís: across them

  1. Prepositions consisting only of one vowel

These are: a, e, u, i (to, from, of [with quantity], of [property])

These take the following endings:

-im, -ith, -é, -í, -in, -ú, -ís

Also, the root form of the preposition changes:

a > adh-

e > ech-

u > uch-

i > ich-

adhim: to me

adhith: to you

adhé: to him

adhí: to her

adhin: to us

adhú: to you (pl.)

adhís: to them

  1. Prepositions ending on -u

These are: au, didhíu (away from, outside)

These prepositions don’t fuse with personal pronouns. The personal pronouns follow after them without changing. The object pronouns are used.

au mi: away from me

au ti: away from you

au ché: away from him

au chí: away from her

au ni: away from us

au sú: away from you (pl.)

au chís: away from them

Exercises

can, ar, ern, ur, cin, ós, gwer, en, tar, am, ér, échan, uchel, anel, enther; ri, di, tré, co, éithra, anó, echó; a, e, u, i; au, didhíu, nes

you go with me:

I stand before you:

the sun is behind him:

the wind is against her:

this happens before it:

this happens after it:

the rain falls on us:

the power is in you (pl.):

the music goes through them:

the people talk about me:

the mountains are around you:

the girl goes without him:

the sky is above us:

the earth is below you (pl.):

the desert is between them:

the work is for me:

the sweat falls off you:

it passes across him:

she is as big as her:

it is beyond us:

the problem is inside of you (pl.):

the solution is outside of them:

she comes to me:

it comes from you:

five litres of it:

the beer is of-him [his]:

they run away from her

the demon is outside of us:

the monster is near them:

You can check your answers below.

Answers

you go with me: áia ti canim

I stand before you: sáia mi arith

the sun is behind him: esi in súel erné

the wind is against her: esi in áel urí

this happens before it: gwéra sin ciní

this happens after it: gwéra sin ósí

the rain falls on us: cóima in hamr gwerin

the power is in you (pl.): esi in gus ensú

the music goes through them: áia in ganthl tarís

the people talk about me: lavára in dóné amim

the mountains are around you: esi in vríé érith

the girl goes without him: áia in gheneth echané

the sky is above us: esi in nem uchelin

the earth is below you (pl.): esi in lithau anelsú

the desert is between them: esi in dithrev entherís

the work is for me: esi in cerdhl riem

the sweat falls off you: cóima in shwís dieth

it passes across him: gwéra í tréché

she is as big as her: esi í co wár cochí

it is beyond us: esi í éithraen

the problem is inside of you (pl.): esi in dhuchuthas anósú

the answer is outside of them: esi in hathespath echóchís

she walks to me: cáma í adhim

it comes from you: diáia í echith

five litres of it: pimp lithr uchí

the beer is of-him [his]: esi in curu iché

they run away from her: rétha sí au chí

the demon is outside of us: esi in dus dhidhíu ni

the monster is near you (pl.): esi in havanch nesú

 

Menghavan 10: Gweranúé Téithach – Adhavachúé – Nithachúé

 

Lesson 10: Possessive Pronouns – Demonstratives – Locatives

In the tenth lesson you will learn what possessive pronouns and demonstratives are, and how they work.

  1. Possessive Pronouns

A possessive pronoun is a word that indicates possession of a thing. In Lesson 2 and 3 we learned two ways of indicating possession: by using the possession indicating particle i-, and by putting two things next to each other, with or without the article between them. Using a possessive pronoun is the third way of indicating possession.

A possessive pronoun is a word that comes before an other word and that indicates possession of the second word: my, your, his, her etc.

cun: dog

mó: my

> mó gun: my dog

The possessive pronoun causes mutation on the following word in most cases, but not for the 3rd person singular feminine and not for the second person plural.

mó: my

tó: your

ó: his

ó: her

nó: our

só: your (pl.)

só: their

Because the third and the fourth and the sixth and the seven are the same, they are distinguished by the mutation: the third and the sixth cause mutation, the fourth and the seventh don’t.

mó (my): mut.

tó (your): mut.

ó (his): mut.

ó (her): no mut.

nó (our): mut.

só (your pl.): no mut.

só (their): mut.

gun: my dog

gun: your dog

ó gun: his dog

ó cun: her dog

gun: our dog

cun: your (pl.) dog

gun: their dog

Remember that possession can also be expressed with the particle i-. In that case it uses the object pronouns, and they follow after the possessed thing.

cun imí: a dog of mine

cun ithí: a dog of yours

cun iché: a dog of his

cun ichí: a dog of hers

cun iní: a dog of ours

cun isú: a dog of yours (pl.)

cun ichís: a dog of theirs

Excercises

Using the words below translate the following phrases. You can find the answers at the end of the lesson.

épis: mare

bó: cow

táru: bull

molth: sheep

gavr: goat

camoch: mountain goat

élan: doe

úru: aurochs

cáru: deer

avanch: water monster

bevr: beaver

mórchun: dolphin

anchrái: salmon

garan: heron

my mare:

your cow:

his bull:

her sheep:

our goat:

your (pl.) mountain goat:

their doe:

my aurochs:

your deer:

his water monster:

her beaver:

our dolphin:

your (pl.) salmon:

their heron:

  1. Demonstratives

A demonstrative is a word that indicates another word: this, that, those, these.

In Galáthach the demonstratives have two parts.

  1. the article “in” before the word
  2. the words –sin or –sé hyphenated to the end of the word

cun: dog

> in cun-sin: this dog

> in cun-sé: that dog

If the word is feminine the article causes mutation.

cunis: bitch

> in gunis-sin: this bitch

> in gunis-sé: that bitch

If the word is plural the article and the demonstratives stay the same.

in cúné-sin: these dogs

in gunísé-sé: those bitches

Excercises:

Translate the following phrases. You can find the answers at the end of the lesson.

this mare:

that cow:

these bulls:

those sheep:

this goat:

that mountain goat:

these does:

those aurochses:

this deer:

that water monster:

these beavers:

those dolphins:

this salmon:

that heron:

  1. Locatives

Locatives are words that indicate a position: here, there.

There are two locatives in Galáthach.

insin: here

insé: there

Esi in cun insin: the dog is here

Esi in gunis insé: the bitch is there

Esi in cun-sin insin: this dog is here

Esi in gunis-sé insé: that bitch is there

Excercises:

Translate the following phrases. You can find the answers at the end of the lesson.

the mare is here:

the cows are there:

this bull is here:

that sheep is there:

these goats are here:

those mountain goats are there:

the doe is here:

the aurochses are there:

this deer is here:

that water monster is there:

these beavers are here:

those dolphins are there:

this salmon is here:

that heron is there:

Answers

Excercises 1

my mare: mó hépis

your cow: tó vó

his bull: ó dáru

her sheep: ó molth

our goat: nó ghavr

your (pl.) mountain goat: só camoch

their doe: só hélan

my aurochs: mó húru

your deer: tó gáru

his water monster: ó havanch

her beaver: ó bevr

our dolphin: nó wórchun

your (pl.) salmon: só anchrái

their heron: só gharan

Excercises 2

this mare: in hépis-sin

that cow: in bó-sé

these bulls: in tarúé-sin

those sheep: in molthé-sé

this goat: in ghavr-sin

that mountain goat: in camoch-sé

these does: in heláné-sin

those aurochses: in hurúé-sé

this deer: in cáru-sin

that water monster: in havanch-sé

these beavers: in bevré-sin

those dolphins: in morchúné-sé

this salmon: in hanchrái-sin

that heron: in gharan-sé

Excercises 3

the mare is here: esi in hépis insin

the cows are there: esi in bóé insé

this bull is here: esi in táru-sin insin

that sheep is there: esi in molth-sé insé

these goats are here: esi in ghavré-sin insin

those mountain goats are there: esi in camóché-sé insé

the doe is here: esi in hélan insin

the aurochses are there: esi in urúé insé

this deer is here: esi in cáru-sin insin

that water monster is there: esi in havanch-sé insé

these beavers are here: esi in bevré-sin insin

those dolphins are there: esi in morchúné insé

this salmon is here: esi in hanchrái-sin insin

that heron is there: esi in gharan-sé insé

 

Menghavan 11: Colaváru – Mésu Péthach – Inchoran Chwoghníthach

 

Lesson 11: Conversation – Interrogative Mode– Subordinate Clause

 

In the eleventh lesson you will learn how to construct a question, and how to construct sentences within sentences.

1. Conversation

 

Below is a conversation between two people. Bren is a man, Chiomára is a woman. Both are traditional Gaulish names. Bren was the leader of the attack on Delphi in 279 BCE, Chiomára was a woman from Galatia. This conversation shows you how questions are constructed.

Bren and Chiomara

Bren: Di wath. Pé gaman a hesi ti?

(Bren: Good day. How are you?)

 

Chiomára: Esi mi in rhé dhái, bráthu. Ach ti-súé?

(Chiomara: I am very well, thank you. And yourself?)

 

Bren: Esi mi in dhái cóéth, bráthu. A ghnía ti o ti-esi pen ré dech?

(Bren: I am well too, thank you. Do you know that you have a beautiful head?)

 

Chiomára: Gnía mi … pé a chwéla ti?

(Chiomara: I know … what do you want?)

 

Bren: A ghála mi bé ichí a brenuchi ichí gwer mó shédhl’ép?

(Bren: Can I cut if [off] to hang it on my saddle?)

 

Chiomára: Conechughri!

(Chiomára: Fuck off!)

 

Vocabulary:

 

pé: what (causes ICM on following word)

caman: road, way

> pé gaman: how

 

dí: day

math: good

> dí wath: good day (ICM because “dí” is a feminine word)

 

dái: good

ré: very (causes ICM on the following word)

in: adverbial marker (causes ICM on the following word)

> in rhé dhái: very well

 

bráthu: thank you (thanks)

 

ti: you

súé: self

> ti-súé: yourself

 

ach: and

 

cóéth: also, too, as well

 

gní: to know

gnía ti: you know

a: question particle (causes ICM on the following word)

> a ghnía ti: do you know

 

o: relative pronoun for subordinate clauses > “that, which”; see further below

 

ti-esi: you have > see below

 

pen: head

tech: beautiful

> pen ré dech: a very beautiful head

 

gwéla ti: you want

pé a chwéla ti: what do you want

 

gála mi: I can

a ghála mi: can I?

 

bé: to cut

 

prenuchi: to hang

 

gwer: on

 

sédhl: seat

ép: horse

> sédhl’ép: saddle (horse-seat)

 

conechughri: to fuck off (idiomatic expression)

 

2. Question Formation

 

As you can see above questions are made by putting the question particle “a” in front of the verb in the sentence.

 

gnía ti: you know > statement.

a ghnía ti?: do you know? > question.

 

The word order doesn’t change. The only difference is the question particle “a”. It causes an initial consonant mutation (ICM) on the following word.

 

gála mi: I can > statement.

a ghála mi?: can I? > question.

 

Question Words

 

pé: what, which

pé gaman: how

pí: who

péri: why

pémái: where

ponch: when

 

3. The Verb To Have

 

Galáthach does not have a specific verb “to have”. Instead it uses a compound construction using the verb “to be”. It is made of the personal pronoun of the entity that “has” something, followed by the verb “to be”. The two are connected with a hyphen.

 

mi-esi ép: I have a horse

 

> mi-esi translates as “with-me, to-me” > mi-esi ép = “to-me” is a horse

 

The conjugation is as follows:

 

mi-esi: I have

ti-esi: you have

é-esi: he has

í-esi: she has

ni-esi: we have

sú-esi: you (pl.)

sí-esi: they have

 

If the subject of a phrase is specified it comes first, followed by the pronoun+to-be construction.

 

in gwir: the man

é-esi: he has

cun: dog

> in gwir é-esi cun: the man has a dog

 

in dóné: the people

sí-esi: they have

gavré: goats

> in dóné sí-esi gavré: the people have goats

 

In a question the question particle “a” comes before the pronoun+to-be construction. It causes mutation to the first letter of the construction.

 

pé a di-esi: what do you have?

péri a shú-esi épé: why do you (pl.) have horses?

 

In a question where the subject is specified the question particle comes between the subject and the pronoun+to-be construction.

 

péri in gwir a hé-esi cun: why does the man have a dog?

péri in dóné a shí-esi gavré: why do the people have goats?

 

 

Excercises 1

 

Construct the following phrases. You can find your answers at the end of the lesson.

 

What’s your name?

Where do you live?

How are you?

Who is your friend?

Why are you here?

When is your birthday?

 

I have a name:

you have a dog:

he has a horse:

she has a cow:

we have beer:

you (pl.) have wine:

they have nothing:

 

the horse has long ears:

the man has a fat nose:

the children have dirty feet:

 

Why do you have a big head?

Why do they have small hands?

Why do the women have long hair?

Why do the cows have short horns?

 

Vocabulary

 

anu: name

bithi: to live

esi: to be

caran: friend

insin: here

pen’vlédhn: birthday (pen + blédhn “head-year”)

cun: dog

ép: horse

bó: cow

curu: beer

gwín: wine

néveth: nothing

pen: head

már: big

sír: long

trughn: nose

galv: fat

traiéthé: feet (of more than one person)

luthrach: dirty

lámé: hands (of more than one person)

méi: small

gwolth: hair

carnu: horn

bir: short

 

4. Subordinate clauses

 

A subordinate clause is a sentence inside of another sentence. It has a verb, subject and object that are independent of the main sentence. The two are linked with the particle “o”, which translates in English as “that” or “which”.

 

gnía ti: you know

o: that

ti-esi: you have

pen: a head

tech: beautiful

> gnía ti o ti-esi pen tech: you know that you have a beautiful head

 

apísa mi: I see

o: that

né hesi: there is not

curu: beer

éth: more

> apísa mi o né hesi curu éth: I see that there is no more beer

 

In the subordinate clause the second sentence (“there is no more beer”) can stand alone independently from the first one (“I see”). The two are connected by the particle “o”.

 

If the particle “o”is followed by a word that starts with a vowel it becomes “och”.

 

gwídha mi: I understand

o: that

esi ti: you are

lisc: tired

> gwídha mi och esi ti lisc: I understand that you are tired

 

 

Excercises 2

 

Construct the following phrases. You can find your answers at the end of the lesson.

 

you deserve that I hit you:

the man sees that the horse is drunk:

the children hear that the dogs howl:

the women know that their hair is long:

the goats hope that they have horns:

he thinks that he is clever:

she knows that he is stupid:

the people don’t know that they have fat noses:

 

Vocabulary

 

gwescára: to deserve

bói: to hit

mesc: drunk

clúi: to hear

duchan: to howl

gwómen: to hope

men: to think

suchwís: clever

duchwís: stupid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Answers 1

 

What’s your name: Pé a hesi tó hanu?

Where do you live: Pémái a vítha ti?

How are you: Pé gaman a hesi ti?

Who is your friend: Pí a hesi tó garan?

Why are you here: Péri a hesi ti insin?

When is your birthday: Ponch a hesi tó ben’vlédhn?

 

I have a name: mi-esi anu

you have a dog: ti-esi cun

he has a horse: é-esi ép

she has a cow: í-esi bó

we have beer: ni-esi curu

you (pl.) have wine: sú-esi gwín

they have nothing: sí-esi néveth

 

the horse has long ears: in ép é-esi daus sír

the man has a fat nose: in gwir é-esi trughn galv

the children have dirty feet: in gnáthé sí-esi tráiéthé luthrach

 

Why do you have a big head: Péri a di-esi pen már?

Why do they have small hands: péri a shí-esi lámé wéi?

Why do the women have long hair: Péri in wná a shí-esi gwolth sír?

Why do the cows have short horns: Péri in bóé a shí-esi carnúé bir?

 

Answer 2

 

you deserve that I hit you: gwescára ti o bóia mi ti

the man sees that the horse is drunk: apísa in gwir och esi in ép mesc

the children hear that the dogs howl: clúia in gnáthé o duchána in cúné

the women know that their hair is long: gnía in wná och esi só chwolth sír

the goats hope that they have horns: gwóména in gavré o sí-esi carnúé

he thinks that he is clever: ména é och esi é suchwís

she knows that he is stupid: gnía í och esi é duchwís

the people don’t know that they have fat noses: né ghnía in dóné o sí-esi trughné galv

 

Menghavan 12: Inchoráné Rhéiach – Inchoráné hAnréiach

 

Lesson 12: Direct Clauses – Indirect Clauses

 

In the twelfth lesson you will learn what direct and indirect clauses are, and how they are constructed in Galáthach.

 

 

Conversation

 

Below are two conversations between three people. Tarchonwoth is a man, Tuthchána and Cunvára are women. All three are attested Gaulish names. These conversations show you how direct clauses and indirect clauses are constructed.

 

collage 3

 

Tarchonwoth: Dí wath, pé gaman a hesi ti?

(Tarchonwoth: Good day, how are you?)

 

Tuthchána: Dí wath adhith cóéth. Esi mi in dhái, bráthu. Ach ti-súé?

(Tuthchana: Good day to you too. I am well, thank you. And yourself?)

 

Tarchonwoth: Esi mi in dhái cóéth.

(Tarchonwoth: I am well too.)

 

Tuthchána: Gwerthamich.

(Tuthchana: Excellent.)

 

Tarchonwoth: Gwéla mi prin ép. A ghnía ti don nep o gála é rinóthi ép adhim?

(Tarchonwoth: I want to buy a horse. Do you know any person who can sell a horse to me?)

 

Tuthchána: Gnía mi. Gnía mi ben shen o gála ó dúithir rinóthi ép adhith. Esi ó anu Cunvára. Ái a gantha hal in bron ach pétha adhí insé.

 

(Tuthchana: I do. I know an old woman whose daughter can sell a horse to you. Her name is Cunvara. Go to the other side of the hill and ask her there.)

 

Tarchonwoth: Bráthu ré hélu, esi ti ré chwórethwár.

(Tarchonwoth: Thanks very much, you’re very helpful.)

 

Tuthchána: Esi í mó harúer imí. Esi í neveth.

(Tuthchana: It’s my pleasure. It’s nothing.)

 

[Áia Tarchonwoth a hápis in ven shen a gantha hal in bron.]

 

Tarchonwoth: Dí wath. A hesi í ti-súé o tó dhúithir í-esi ép a brin?

(Tarchonwoth: Good day. Is it yourself whose daughter has a horse to buy?)

 

Cunvára: Esi í mi-súé. A chwéla ti ápis in ép o gála mó dhúithir rinóthi ichí?

(Cinvara: It is myself. Do you want to see the horse that my daughter can sell?)

 

Tarchonwoth: In chwír, gwéla mi.

(Tarchonwoth: Yes, I do.)

 

Cunvára: Esi é insé, derchi. A harwéra é adhith?

(Cunvára: It is there, look. Does it please you?)

 

 

Vocabulary

 

gwerthamich: excellent

prin: to buy

don nep: any/some person

rinóthi: to sell

ben: woman

sen: old

dúithir: daughter

cantha: side

al: other

bron: hill

derchi: to look

  1. Direct Clauses

 

A direct clause is a part of a sentence that refers back to the subject of the previous part of the sentence.

 

> this is the man who wants to buy a horse

 

The direct clause is “who wants to buy a horse”. The word “who” refers to “the man”, which was the subject of the previous part of the sentence “this is the man”.

 

In Galáthach there are four ways of constructing this sentence:

 

  1. a) introducing the clause with the word “o” and not restating the subject. The word “o” means “that” or “which”. If it is followed by a word that starts with a vowel it becomes “och”.

 

esi: is

sin: this

in gwir: the man

o: that (which)

gwel: to want

prin: to buy

in ép: the horse

 

> esi sin in gwir o gwéla prin in ép: this is the man who wants to buy the horse

 

The word “o” connects the two phrases and refers to “the man”. There is no confusion because there is no other word in the second phrase that can be interpreted as a subject:

 

gwéla prin in ép: want buying the horse

 

The word “ép” can not be interpreted as a subject because it does not follow the verb immediately. In this case there is no need to restate the subject.

 

  1. b) introducing the clause with the word “o” and restating the subject. This is necessary when there can be confusion about which is the subject of the second phrase.

 

esi sin in gwir o gwéla in ép > this sentence can be interpreted in two ways:

 

– this is the man who wants the horse

– this is the man who the horse wants

 

Because the words “in ép”, “the horse” follow directly after the verb they can be interpreted as being the subject of the second verb “gwel”, “wanting”.

 

Therefore the subject needs to be restated with a pronoun that refers back to the subject of the first phrase. This is called using a resumptive pronoun.

 

esi sin in gwir o gwéla é in ép: this is the man who wants the horse

 

The literal translation of this sentence is “this is the man that he wants the horse”.

 

In reality the direct clause becomes a subordinate clause linked to the main clause with the word “o”.

 

  1. c) linking the second clause to the first clause with the suffix –ió which gets attached to the end of the verb of the second clause.

 

esi sin in gwir gwelió in ép: this is the man who wants the horse

 

The suffix –ió always refers back to the subject immediately in front of it. The literal translation of this sentence is something like “this is the man wanting the horse”.

 

  1. d) linking the second clause to the first clause with the preposition “en” in front of the verb. This causes initial consonant mutation on the verb. The verb is in the root or infinitive form.

 

esi sin in gwir en chwel in ép

 

The literal translation of this sentence is “this is the man wanting the horse”. It is the same as using the suffix –ió.

 

Because the verb is in the root or infinitive form there can be no confusion about what is the subject of the second clause, because a subject can never follow a verb in the root or infinitive form.

 

Using the preposition “en” to link a second clause to a main clause can only be done in the present tense.

 

 

People choose freely from these four ways of constructing direct clauses. However, the second one (b) is the easiest one.

 

 

  1. Indirect Clauses

 

A direct clause is a part of a sentence that refers back to the subject of the previous part of the sentence, but in an indirect way.

 

this is the man whose daughter wants to buy the horse

 

The second clause starts with “whose daughter”. The words “whose daughter” refer back to the subject of the previous clause, but the actual subject of the second clause is the daughter, not the man himself.

 

In Galáthach there is only one way to construct this sentence. The clause is introduced with the word “o” and the subject is stated independently. The subject becomes “his daughter”.

 

esi sin in gwir o gwéla ó dhúithir prin in ép

 

The literal translation of this sentence is “this is the man that his daughter wants to buy the horse”. As above in Direct Clauses b) the clause becomes a subordinate clause with its own independent subject, linked to the first clause with the word “o”.

 

 

Exercises

 

Translate the following phrases. You can find your answers at the back of this lesson.

 

 

cath: cat

caníath: singer

druch: bad

mapath: child

depri: to eat

grau: sand

lavar: to talk

ióinch: young

derchi: to look (at)

rédhi: to ride

méi: little

geneth: girl

dáthráieth: feet (one pair)

calwár: boot

mer: crazy

líauth: shape

tói: bow

cáthói: arrow

dós: arm

sír: long

nerthach: strong

 

 

That is the woman who talks to cats:

Here is the man who is a bad singer:

This the child that eats sand:

Cunvára is the old woman who talks to Tarchonwoth:

Tarchonwoth is the young man who looks at Tuthchána:

 

Tuthchána is the girl whose sister rides little horses:

Tarchonwoth is the man whose feet are in boots:

Cunvára is the woman whose eyes are crazy:

It is the horse whose legs are in excellent shape:

There goes the woman with the bow and arrows whose arms are long and strong:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Answers

 

 

That is the woman who talks to cats: Esi sé in ven o lavára can gáthé.

Here is the man who is a bad singer: Insin esi in gwir och esi é caníath druch.

This the child that eats sand: Esi sin in mapath o depra é grau

Cunvára is the old woman who talks to Tarchonwoth: Esi Cunvára in ven shen en lhavar can Tarchonwoth.

Tarchonwoth is the young man who looks at Tuthchána: Esi Tarchonwoth in gwir ióinch derchió Tuthchána.

 

Tuthchána is the girl whose sister rides little horses: Esi Tuthchána in gheneth o rédha ó swíor épé méi.

Tarchonwoth is the man whose feet are in boots: Esi Tarchonwoth in gwir och esi ó dháthráieth en galwáré.

Cunvára is the woman who has crazy eyes: Esi Cunvára in ven och í-esi dáop mer.

It is the horse whose legs are in excellent shape: Esi í in ép och esi ó góché en lhíauth gwerthamich.

There goes the woman with the bow and arrows whose arms are long and strong: Insé áia in ven can in tói ach in cáthóíé och esi ó dádhós sír ach nerthach.

 

Menghavan 13: Inchoráné Gwepsin – Inchoráné Gwep Péthan

 

Lesson 13: Conjunction Clauses – Question Word Clauses

 

In the thirteenth lesson you will learn what conjunction and question word clauses are, and how they are constructed in Galáthach.

 

 

Conversation

 

Below is a conversation between two people. Marthal is a man and Suvron is a woman. Both are attested Gaulish names. The conversation shows you how conjunction and question word clauses are constructed.

collage

 

Suvron: Anghnítha mi ma chwéla ti suling canim?

(Suvron: I wonder if you want to dance with me?)

 

Marthal: Né ghnía mi pé a chwéla mi ávó. A chwéla mi suling gwé né a chwéla mi?

(Marthal: I don’t know what I want to do. Do I want to dance or don’t I?)

 

Suvron: Gwéla mi suling canith ach né a chwéla ti?

(Suvron: I want to dance with you and you don’t want to?)

 

Marthal: Gwéla ti suling canim éithr né hesi suling sé o gwéla mi avó.

(Marthal: You want to dance with me but dancing is not what I want to do.)

 

Suvron: A ghnía ti pí a hesi mi?

(Suvron: Do you know who I am?)

 

Marthal: Né ghnía mi. Cóéth, né ghnía mi pé shulingen a hesi sé.

(Marthal: I don’t know. Also, I don’t know what dance that is.)

 

Suvron: A ghnía ti pé gaman a shuling?

(Suvron: Do you know how to dance?)

 

Marthal: Né ghnía mi. Né ghnía mi diaman pémái a hádha mó dhálam, ach né ghnía mi diaman ponch a wantha mó dháthráieth.

(Marthal: I don’t. I never know where to put my hands, and I never know when to move my feet.)

 

Suvron: A ghnía ti péri a chwéla mi o sulinga ti canim?

(Suvron: Do you know why I want you to dance with me?)

 

Marthal: Né ghnía mi. A chwéla ti gní pethi báné u guru a híva mi pap dí?

(Marthal: I don’t. Do you want to know how many glasses of beer I drink every day?)

 

Suvron: Esi mi certh o né chwéla mi gní. Duch, pé a chwéla ti ávó?

(Suvron: I’m sure that I don’t want to know. So, what do you want to do?)

 

Marthal: Gwéla mi ívi curu éth.

(Marthal: I want to drink more beer.)

 

Meaning of names:

 

Marthal: Big Forehead (< Marotalus)

 

Suvron: Good Breast (< Subroni)

 

 

Vocabulary

 

anghníthi: to wonder

gwel: to want

suling: to dance

gní: to know

ávó: to do

éithr: but

cóéth: also

diaman: never

ma: if

pé: what

gwé: or

ach: and

pí: who

pé shulingen: what (which) dance

pé gaman: how (which way)

pémái: where

ponch: when

ádha: to put

dálam: hands (of a person > a pair of hands)

mantha: to move

dáthráieth: feet (of a person > a pair of feet)

péri: why

pethi: how much/how many

pan: cup

u: of (quantity)

curu: beer

ívi: to drink

pap: every

dí: day

duch: so, anyway, go on then, therefore

éth: more

 

 

  1. Conjunction Clauses

 

A conjunction clause is a phrase that is linked to a phrase before it with a conjunction, combining into one sentence. Conjunctions are:

 

ma: if

gwé: or

ach: and

éithr: but

sé o: what/which (“that which”)

 

 

Conjunction clauses found in the conversation above:

 

 

  1. a) Suvron: Anghnítha mi ma chwéla ti suling canim?

(Suvron: I wonder if you want to dance with me?)

 

  1. b) Marthal: A chwéla mi suling gwé né a chwéla mi?

(Marthal: Do I want to dance or don’t I?)

 

  1. c) Suvron: Gwéla mi suling canith ach né a chwéla ti?

(Suvron: I want to dance with you and you don’t want to?)

 

  1. d) Marthal: Gwéla ti suling canim éithr né hesi suling sé o gwéla mi avó.

(Marthal: You want to dance with me but dancing is not what I want to do.)

 

The conjunctions “what” and “which” are very important. They can be used in two ways: as a word that refers to something else and as a question.

 

The English words “what” and “which” that refer to something else are translated by the phrase “sé o”, which literally means “that which”. It is used in the last example above.

 

 

Marthal:[…] né hesi suling sé o gwéla mi avó.

(Marthal: […] dancing is not what I want to do.)

 

In the phrase “… dancing is not what I want to do” the word “what” is translated by “sé o”.

 

In the English translation the word “what” can be replaced by the phrase “that which” without changing the meaning of the sentence. If that can be done you know that the word “what” is used as a conjunction, and not as a question word. If that is the case the word “what” is translated in Galáthach as “sé o”.

 

If the word “what” in the English translation cannot be translated by the phrase “that which”, and a question is implied in the phrase, it needs to be translated by a question word.

 

 

  1. Question Word Clauses

 

A question word clause is a phrase that is linked to a phrase before it with a question word, combining into one sentence. Usually there is an aspect of something unknown implied in the phrase, suggesting a question. Question words are:

 

pí: who

pé: what

pé gaman: how

pémái: where

ponch: when

péri: why

pethi: how many/how much

 

They are followed by the question particle “a” if a question is implied, which is most of the time. In the case of “pethi” (how many) the question particle “a” comes after the specified object (how many/much of something).

 

If a question is not implied they are not followed by the particle “a”. The words “pémái” (where) and “ponch” (when) can be used narratively, to tell a story. In that case they don’t indicate a question and they are not followed by the particle “a”.

 

 

  1. a) Suvron: A ghnía ti pí a hesi mi?

(Suvron: Do you know who I am?)

 

  1. b) Marthal: Né ghnía mi. Cóéth, né ghnía mi pé shulingen a hesi sé.

(Marthal: I don’t know. Also, I don’t know what dance that is.)

 

  1. c) Suvron: A ghnía ti pé gaman a shuling?

(Suvron: Do you know how to dance?)

 

  1. d) Marthal: Né ghnía mi. Né ghnía mi diaman pémái a hádha mó dhálam, ach né ghnía mi diaman ponch a wantha mó dháthráieth.

(Marthal: I don’t. I never know where to put my hands, and I never know when to move my feet.)

 

  1. e) Suvron: A ghnía ti péri a chwéla mi o sulinga ti canim?

(Suvron: Do you know why I want you to dance with me?)

 

  1. f) Marthal: Né ghnía mi. A chwéla ti gní pethi báné u guru a híva mi pap dí?

(Marthal: I don’t. Do you want to know how many glasses of beer I drink every day?)

 

 

Excercises

 

Translate the following sentences. You can find the answers at the end of the lesson.

 

mer: crazy

tech: beautiful

dal: blind

galv: fat

cára: to love

mesc: drunk

duchwís: stupid

clúi: to hear

spá: to say

tiern: boss

dichéni: to show

gwín: wine

ívi: to drink

sóni: to sleep

coimi: to fall

can: to sing

súel: sun

íthi: to go down

 

I want to know if you are crazy:

Are you (fem.) beautiful or am I blind:

I am fat and I love it:

I am drunk but you are stupid:

I can’t hear what you say:

 

I want to know who is the boss:

I don’t understand what you want:

Can you show me how to do it:

I can’t believe how much wine you drink:

I don’t know why you do this:

 

I want to sleep where I fall:

I sing when the sun goes down:

 

 

Answers

 

I want to know if you are crazy: Gwéla mi gní ma hesi ti mer.

Are you (fem.) beautiful or am I blind: A hesi ti dech gwé a hesi mi dal?

I am fat and I love it: Esi mi galv ach cára mi chí.

I am drunk but you are stupid: Esi mi mesc éithr esi ti duchwís.

I can’t hear what you say: Né ghála mi clúi sé o spá ti.

 

I want to know who is the boss: Gwéla mi gní pí a hesi in tiern

I don’t understand what you want: Né chwídha mi pé a chwéla ti.

Can you show me how to do it: A ghála ti dichéni adhim pé gaman a hávó ichí?

I can’t believe how much wine you drink: Né ghála mi crédhi pethi chwin a híva ti.

I don’t know why you do this: Né ghnía mi péri a háva ti sin.

 

I want to sleep where I fall: Gwéla mi sóni pémái cóima mi.

I sing when the sun goes down: Cána mi ponch ítha in súel.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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