Menghavan 0: Swausé In Tengu

 

 Lesson 0: The Sounds Of The Language

In this preliminary lesson you will learn what the sounds of the language are.

Vowels

Modern Gaulish has five vowels. They can be short or long. These are the short ones. The table shows how they are written, what their phonetic value is, and what they sound like using examples in English and other languages.

vowel phonetic value (IPA) sound examples
a

o

u

e

i

[a]

[o]

[u]

[e]

[i]

pat

pot

put

pet

pit

This table shows the long vowels. They are indicated with diacritics over the vowel, e.g. á is long a.

vowel phonetic value (IPA) sound examples
á

ó

ú

é

í

[a:]

[o:]

[u:]

[e:]

[i:]

part

pole

pool

pay without the final y

peel

Modern Gaulish has five diphthongs. A diphthong is a group of two vowels written and pronounced together. This table shows them.

diphthong phonetic value (IPA) sound examples
ái

ói

úi

éi

au

[a:j]

[o:j]

[u:j]

[e:j]

[au]

bye

boy

brouillard (French)

bay

cow

Consonants

Modern Gaulish has a large number of consonants. The table below shows how they are written, gives their phonetic description, and gives sound examples in English and other languages. It is not possible to provide examples for every sound.

consonant phonetic value (IPA) sound examples
p

t

c

b

d

g

v

dh

gh

f

th

ch

fh

m

w

s

sh

n

r

l

nh

rh

lh

ng

[p]

[t]

[k]

[b]

[d]

[g]

[v]

[ð]

[ɣ]

[f]

[θ]

[x]

[ɸ]

[m]

[w]

[s]

[ʃ]

[n]

[r]

[l]

[xn]

[xr]

[xl]

[ŋ]

pit

tit

kit

boar

door

gore

very

there

* έγώ, ego, modern Greek “I”

fin

thin

* loch, Scottish; ich, German

* f with no tongue on teeth

may

way

sit

shit

nose

rose

lose

* [x] followed by [n]

* [x] followed by [r]

* [x] followed by [l]

sing

Vowel length variation

The length of a vowel can change. In a word of two syllables or more the emphasis will be on the second last syllable. Often this will make the vowel of that syllable long. Examples are given below.

men: to think > vowel /e/ is short

ménu: thought > emphasis on first vowel /e/ which becomes long

menúé: thoughts > emphasis shifts to second last vowel /u/ which becomes long

 

Menghavan 1: Bréthré – Aman Dhathach – Gweranúé Donach

Lesson 1: Verbs – Present Tense – Personal Pronouns

In the first lesson you will learn how to put a verb in the present tense and how to use it with a personal pronoun.

  1. Verbs in the present tense

Each verb has a basic form or root form, known as a “verbal noun”. It has the same function as the infinitve in English.

Verbal nouns can end in a consonant, in -i, -a, -e, and in just one case in -ó, never in -u. Examples are below:

ápis: to see

men: to think

gwel: to want

gar: to call/

carni: to build

argha: to shine

delghe: to hold

ávó: to do, to make

berwi: to boil

gní: to know

To form the present tense of these verbs an –a is added to the verbal noun in the following ways. Note that vowels in modern Gaulish can be either long or short. Vowel length changes with emphasis. The emphasis is always on the second last syllable. When words are extended the emphasis shifts accordingly.

Verbs on a consonant:

ápis > apísa

men > ména

gwel > gwéla

gar > gára

Verbs on –i:

carni > carna

Verbs on –a:

argha > argha – nothing changes

Verbs on -e:

delghe > delgha

Verbs on -ó exchange the -ó for an -a:

ávó > áva

Verbs on -wi retain the final -i:

berwi > berwía

Verbs on -i where the -i is the only vowel retain the -i:

gní > gnía

Exercises

Put the following verbs into the present tense:

prin (to buy)

ber (to carry)

gal (to be able to do)

brís (to break)

ívi (to drink)

cára (to love)

cinge (to wage war)

ávó (to do, to make)

camwi (to bend, to curve)

lí (to lie down)

  1. Personal pronouns

The personal pronouns when used as subject are as follows:

mi: I

ti: you

é: he

í: she

í: it

ni: we

sú: you pl.

sí: they

There is no difference in the third pronoun plural between the masculine and the feminine form.

In modern Gaulish the personal pronoun follows the verb it accompanies:

apísa mi: I see

ména ti: you think

gwéla é: he wants

gára í: she calls

carna ni: we build

argha sú: you shine

delgha sí: they hold

áva í: it  does- it makes

berwía í: it boils

gnía í: it knows

Exercises

Make the following phrases:

I buy

you carry

he can

she breaks

we drink

you (pl.) love

they wage war

it does, it makes

it bends

it lies down

 

Menghavan 2: Gweranúé Donach Co hUrchatha

Lesson 2: Personal Pronouns As Object

In the second lesson you will learn how to use a pronoun when it is the object of a phrase with a verb.

  1. Personal pronouns as object of an active verb

The object of a sentence is the thing to which something is being done. It is the receiving end of the action performed by the verb.

When personal pronouns are the object of a sentence they can take two different forms. The first form is identical to the form they take when they are the subject of a sentence, except for one. The subject of a sentence is the giving end of the action performed by the verb.

personal pronouns as subject personal pronouns as object
mi: I

ti: you

é: he

í: she

í: it

ni: we

sú: you pl.

sí: they

mi: me

ti: you

é: him

í: her

í: it

ni: us

sú: you pl.

ís: them

Only the third person plural pronoun differs: ís instead of sí.

These pronouns are used when they are the receiving end of an active verb. An active verb is a verb that performs the main action of a phrase. It will have a subject which will be performing the action. It will be in a form that indicates the time and the way the action is being performed.

V = verb

S = subject

O = object

In modern Gaulish a phrase has the standard order Verb-Subject-Order. It is an aspect that is characteristic of the Celtic languages and is not common in English.

Using the verbs that were introduced in lesson 1 we can construct examples:

apísa mi: I see > apísa mi ti: I see you

In the phrase “apísa mi ti” the verb “apísa” comes first, the subject “mi” comes second, and the object “ti” comes third. This is indicated like this:

apísa mi ti

V      S   O

We can see that the verb “apísa” is an active verb because it is in the present tense: it has the present tense ending –a.

Here are more examples:

gára í mi: she calls me

delgha é ni: he holds us

gnía sí sú: they know you (pl.)

When the object pronoun starts with a vowel, such as é, í and ís, and they follow a subject pronoun, that object pronoun receives an extra letter ch- at the start. This letter ch is pronounced like the –ch in the Scottish word “loch”.

apísa mi chí: I see her

ména mi chí: I think it

gwéla í ché: she wants him

áva é chí: he does it

gnía sú chís: you (pl.) know them

gára í chís: she calls them

Exercises

Construct the following phrases with the verbs given above and underneath:

prin (to buy)

ber (to carry)

brís (to break)

ívi (to drink)

cára (to love)

ávó (to do, to make)

camwi (to bend, to curve)

lí (to lie down)

I buy it:

you carry him:

he breaks it:

she drinks it:

we love them:

you (pl.) bend us:

they call you (pl.):

she sees me:

he knows her:

she wants you:

You can check your answers on the last page of this lesson.

  1. Personal pronouns as object of a verbal noun

The verbal noun is the basic root form of the verb, called infinitive in English.

It is easiest to think of the verbal noun of modern Gaulish as the –ing form of the English verb.

E.g. can: to sing > can: “singing”

cána mi chí: I sing it

When the personal pronouns are the object of a verbal noun, they take on a different form:

mi > imí

ti > ithí

é > iché

í > ichí

ni > iní

sú > isú

ís > ichís

When a verbal noun is used in a phrase with an active verb it comes immediately after the subject:

gwéla mi can: I want to sing

In this phrase the verbal noun is the object of the active verb:

gwéla mi can

V        S    O

If we think of the verbal noun as the –ing form of the verb, we could literally translate this as:

want I singing (> “I want singing”)

V      S   O

If we use a personal pronoun to be the object of the verbal noun we use the special form described above:

gwéla mi can ichí: I want to sing it

In this phrase the two words “can ichí” become the new object of the phrase.

gwéla mi can ichí

V       S    [O       ]

The above phrase can be literally translated as “I want singing of-it”.

The particle i- that the pronouns are attached to indicates possession of something:

imí: of-me

ithí: of-you

iché: of-him

ichí: of-her

ichí: of-it

iní: of-us

isú: of-you pl.

ichís: of-them

The phrase “can ichí” translates as “singing of-it”. If we add an imaginary definite article [the] to the English version it makes sense:

can ichí: [the] singing of-it > gwéla mi can ichí: I want [the] singing of-it

Exercises

Make the following phrases, using the verbs given above:

I want to see it:

you want to hold her:

he wants to know you:

she wants to love him:

it can break me:

we can buy them:

you (pl.) can carry us:

they can know you (pl.):

you (pl.) can do it:

You can check your answers below.

Answers

Exercises 1

I buy it: prína mi chí

you carry him: béra ti ché

he breaks it: brisa é chí

she drinks it: íva í chí

we love them: cára ni chís

you (pl.) bend us: camwía sú ni

they call you (pl.): gára sí sú

she sees me: apísa í mi

he knows her: gnía é chí

she wants you: gwéla í ti

Exercises 2

I want to see it: gwéla mi ápis ichí

you want to hold her: gwéla ti delghe ichí

he wants to know you: gwéla é gní ithí

she wants to love him: gwéla í cára iché

it can break me: gála í brís imí

we can buy them: gála ni prin ichís

you (pl.) can carry us: gála sú ber iní

they can know you (pl.): gála sí gní isú

you (pl.) can do it: gála sú ávó ichí

                                                                                                          

Menghavan 3: Anúé – Téith – In hAmosanal

Lesson 3: Nouns – Possession – The Article

In the third lesson you will learn what a noun is, how it is possessed, and what the article is.

  1. Nouns

The word “noun” means “name”. It is a word that refers to anything that can have a name, such as a person, place, thing, state or quality. In lesson 1 and 2 we learned about subjects and objects. Nouns are things that can be subjects or objects of a sentence.

e.g.:

gwir: man

cun: dog

ép: horse

cánu: song

ménu: thought

coch: leg

duvr: water

pen: head

There is no indefinite article like English “a, an” in modern Gaulish:

gwir: man

gwir: a man

cun: dog

cun: a dog

We can use the verbs we learned in the previous lessons to construct sentences where the subject and the object are nouns instead of pronouns:

gára gwir cun: a man calls a dog

V      S      O

apísa cun ép: a dog sees a horse

cána gwir cánu: a man sings a song

ména gwir ménu: a man thinks a thought

Exercises:

Construct the following phrases with the verbs given in the previous lessons and the nouns given above and underneath:

ben: woman

gnath: child

mapath: boy

geneth: girl

curu: beer

cuchul: hat

a man buys a beer:

a woman holds a child:

a boy wants a hat:

a girl sings a song

a horse drinks water:

a dog breaks a leg:

a child loves a horse:

a man sees a woman:

a horse carries a boy:

a woman calls a dog:

You can check your answers on the last page of this lesson.

  1. Possession

In lesson 2 we saw that when a pronoun was used as an object it had a special possession particle i-. This particle is not used with anything else, only with the pronoun. When we use a noun we just replace the pronoun and the particle with a noun:

cána mi cánu: I sing a song

gwéla mi can ichí: I want to sing it

gwéla mi can cánu: I want to sing a song

The phrase “can cánu” means “[the] singing of a song”. The English word [the] is not used.

This phrase has two nouns: 1. the verbal noun “can”. 2. the noun “cánu”. In this phrase the first noun “can” is possessed by the second noun “cánu”. In English this is indicated by the word “of”. In modern Gaulish this is indicated by the position of the word: the second word possesses the first word.

The same can be done with any two nouns:

curu gwir: a beer of a man [a man’s beer]

gnath ben: a child of a woman [a woman’s child]

ép geneth: a horse of a girl [a girl’s horse]

Exercises

Using the words learned in all the lessons make the following phrases:

a leg of a dog [a dog’s leg]:

a dog of a man [a man’s dog]:

a head of a horse [a horse’s head]:

a hat of a woman [a woman’s hat]:

a thought of a child [a child’s thought]:

a song of a girl [a girl’s song]:

a horse of a boy [a boy’s horse]:

a man of a woman [a woman’s man]:

a child of a man [a man’s child]:

a hat of a child [a child’s hat]:

  1. The Article

Modern Gaulish has one article: “in”. It does not change for any reason.

e.g.:

in gwir: the man

in ép: the horse

in mapath: the boy

in curu: the beer

in pen: the head

in duvr: the water

The article “in” can be used in cases of possession. It can only be used with the second noun, which is the one possessing the first noun. The first noun can never have the article in front of it.

e.g.:

cun gwir: a dog of a man [a man’s dog]

cun in gwir: a dog of the man [the man’s dog]

The English phrase between brackets […] shows a very good translation of the modern Gaulish phrase. It only uses one article and can only ever use one article. It is not possible to say “the man’s the dog”.

The second noun possesses the first noun. The second noun is the only noun that can have the article.

Exercises

Construct the following phrases, using all the words learned so far:

the head of the horse:

the leg of the dog:

the beer of the man:

the hat of the boy:

the water of the horse”

the song of the boy:

the thought of the man:

the horse of the song:

the dog of the boy:

the hat of the horse:

You can check your answers below.

Answers

Exercises 1

a man buys a beer: prína gwir curu

a woman holds a child: delgha ben gnath

a boy wants a hat: gwéla mapath cuchul

a girl sings a song: cána geneth cánu

a horse drinks water: íva ép duvr

a dog breaks a leg: brísa cun coch

a child loves a horse: cára gnath ép

a man sees a woman: apísa gwir ben

a horse carries a boy: béra ép mapath

a woman calls a dog: gára ben cun

Exercises 2

a leg of a dog [a dog’s leg]: coch cun

a dog of a man [a man’s dog]: cun gwir

a head of a horse [a horse’s head]: pen ép

a hat of a woman [a woman’s hat]: cuchul ben

a thought of a child [a child’s thought]: ménu gnath

a song of a girl [a girl’s song]: cánu geneth

a horse of a boy [a boy’s horse]: ép mapath

a man of a woman [a woman’s man]: gwir ben

a child of a man [a man’s child]: gnath gwir

a hat of a child [a child’s hat]: cuchul gnath

Exercises 3

the head of the horse: pen in ép

the leg of the dog: coch in cun

the beer of the man: curu in gwir

the hat of the boy: cuchul in mapath

the water of the horse: duvr in ép

the song of the boy: cánu in mapath

the thought of the man: ménu in gwir

the horse of the song: ép in cánu

the dog of the boy: cun in mapath

the hat of the horse: cuchul in ép

                                                                                                          

Menghavan 4: Alghnas Anúé

 Lesson 4: Gender Of Nouns

In the fourth lesson you will learn how to determine the gender of nouns.

Gender Of Nouns

In modern Gaulish all nouns have a gender, which is either masculine or feminine. If the meaning of the noun indicates a gender, then that noun is that gender:

gwir: man

ben: woman

mapath: boy

geneth: girl

map: son

dúithir: daughter

áther: father

máthir: mother

moth: penis

tuthu: vagina

If the meaning of a noun does not indicate a gender, its gender is determined by the last vowel. If the last vowel is /a/ or /i/ the noun is feminine.

lam: hand > fem.

bis: finger > fem

tír: land > fem

cnam: bone > fem

If the last vowel is /e/, /o/ or /u/ the noun is masculine.

pen: head > masc.

mór: sea > masc.

cánu: song > masc.

tráieth: foot: masc.

coch: leg: masc.

curu: beer > masc.

The –i in the diphthongs –ái-, -éi-, -ói- and –úi- is not a vowel, it is a semi-consonant, like /y/ in English. It does not count as a vowel, and its presence does not make a noun’s gender feminine:

brói: country > last vowel is /o/, the –i is the semi-consonant > masc.

mái: place, plain > last vowel is /a/ > fem.

téi: house > last vowel is /e/ > masc.

gwólúith: strain > last vowel is /u/ > masc.

Some nouns end in a double consonant where the last consonant is l, n or r. When pronounced there is a dull indistinct sound between the second last consonant and the l, n or r. This sound is called schwa, and is represented by the symbol [ǝ]. It is not considered a vowel and is not written. It does not affect the gender of a noun. The gender of such a noun is determined by the last vowel before the schwa:

sédhl: seat > last vowel is /e/ > masc.

sparn: thorn > last vowel is /a/ > fem

livr: book > last vowel is /i/ > fem.

Some nouns end in a diphthong followed by a double consonant where the last consonant is l, n or r. The gender of these nouns is determined by the last vowel before the –i of the diphthong:

anéithl: protection > last vowel is /e/ > masc.

lúithr: struggle > last vowel is /u/ > masc.

bóithl: hit > last vowel is /o/ > masc.

amáithl: service > last vowel is /a/ > fem.

Nouns of animals are masculine by default, even if the vowels are /a/ or /i/:

garan: heron > masc.

cun: dog > masc.

lóern: fox > masc.

ép: horse > masc.

caval: [draught] horse > masc.

bó: cow [generic name for cattle]

These nouns can be made feminine by adding the suffix –is:

garanis: female heron

cunis: bitch

lóernis: vixen

épis: mare (also casich)

cavalis: female draught horse

Nouns indicating human functions or activities are also masculine by default:

drúidh: scholar > masc.

gwerchovreth: magistrate > masc.

tiern: boss, chief > masc.

dan: official, manager > masc.

These nouns can also be made feminine by adding the suffix –is:

drúidhis: female scholar

gwerchovrethis: female magistrate

tiernis: female boss, chief

danis: female official, manager

Exercises

Determine the gender of the following nouns:

car: car

sesa: chair

roth: wheel

aríthis: table

dulu: paper

cumlath: plate

cladhal: knife

gaval: fork

bóthéi: stable

bochwídhu: spoon

ethn: bird

táru: bull

amáiath: servant

cerdhíath: worker

menrodhiath: teacher

gnisáiath: student

pethlói: stuff

pren: tree

bil: tree trunk

clétha: ladder

cilurn: bucket

scothir: shovel

cerdhl: work

tráith: beach

crósu: wave

sir: star

nem: sky

brí: hill

brói: country

bélói: culture

tengu: language

tarinch: nail (fastening implement)

cingeth: warrior

delgheth: holder

druthas: courage

dumnas: darkness

échal: hoof

You can check your answers below.

Answers

car: car > f

sesa: chair > f

roth: wheel > m

aríthis: table > f

dulu: paper > m

cumlath: plate > f

cladhal: knife > f

gaval: fork > f

bóthéi: stable > m

bochwídhu: spoon > m

ethn: bird > m

táru: bull > m

amáiath: servant > m

cerdhíath: worker > m

menrodhiath: teacher > m

gnisáiath: student > m

pethlói: stuff > m

pren: tree > m

bil: tree trunk > f

clétha: ladder > f

cilurn: bucket > m

scothir: shovel > f

cerdhl: work > m

tráith: beach > f

crósu: wave > m

sir: star > f

nem: sky > m

brí: hill > f

brói: country > m

bélói: culture > m

tengu: language > m

tarinch: nail (for hammering) > f

cingeth: warrior > m

delgheth: holder > m

druthas: courage > f

dumnas: darkness > f

échal: hoof > f

                                                                                                          

Menghavan 5: Rithiúnan In Elwachídhu

Lesson 5: Plural Formation

In the fifth lesson you will learn how to form the plural of nouns.

Plural Of Nouns

The plural of the most nouns is formed by adding the plural suffix –é to the noun.

gwir > gwir + -é

mapath > mapath + -é

Because it is an open vowel it causes the emphasis to shift one place closer to the end of the word. Where the plural ending is not separated from the previous syllable by more than one consonant the vowel of that syllable before the ending –é becomes long as well as emphasised.

gwir > gwíré (men)

mapath > mapáthé (boys)

geneth > genéthé (girls)

map > mápé (sons)

dúithir > dúithíré (daughters)

If the plural ending is separated from the previous syllable by more than one consonant the vowel of that sylable is short.

ethn: bird > ethné: birds

carch: rock > carché: rocks

If a word ends in a vowel the ending –é follows immediately after that vowel, making that vowel emphasised and long.

cánu: song > canúé: songs

Most plurals in Galáthach are formed in this way. There are two exceptions only:

Plural Of Woman

The plural of the word for woman is different.

ben: woman > mná: women

This is attested as such in Old Gaulish.

Plural Of Natural Pairs

The plural of things that naturally occur as pairs is formed by adding the prefix dá-, which means “two”.

óp: eye > dáóp: eyes

coch: leg > dáchoch: legs

lam: hand > dálam: hands

For the word aus “ear” the prefix dá- becomes shortened to d-.

aus: ear > daus: ears

In cases where these things occur in numbers other than two the normal plural suffix –é is used.

ópé damathal: [the] eyes of a spider

> spiders have eight eyes

coché ép: [the] legs of a horse

> horses have four legs

ópé gwíré: the eyes of men

> several men together have more than two eyes

In cases where things are referred to that are not of natural formation and may or may not come in pairs, the normal plural suffix –é is used.

lamé gwepór: the hands of a clock

> a clock is not a natural creature, and there may be more than two hands on a clock, e.g. hours, minutes, seconds

Plural Of Collectivity

A great number of things that is commonly considered as one whole is indicated by the suffix –lói.

gwep: word > gweplói: vocabulary

> gweplóié: vocabularies

sir: star > sirlói: constellation

> sirlóié: constellations

Plural After Numbers

The plural is not used after numbers. Nouns stay in the singular.

ép: a horse > pethr ép: four horses

nóith: night > dech nóith: ten nights

Exercises

  1. Put the following words into the plural:

car (car) >

sesa (chair) >

roth (wheel) >

aríthis (table) >

dulu (paper) >

cumlath (plate) >

cladhal (knife) >

gaval (fork) >

bóthéi (stable) >

bochwídhu (spoon) >

cilurn (bucket) >

cerdhl (work) >

tarinch (nail) >

crósu (wave) >

brí (hill) >

coch (leg) >

aus (ear) >

dós (arm) >

durn (fist) >

  1. Construct the right plural:

legs of a woman >

ears of a girl >

arms of a boy >

eyes of a man >

legs of a dog >

ears of a horse >

arms of a river >

eyes of a crab >

legs of girls >

ears of men >

arms of women >

eyes of boys >

  1. Use the following numbers to construct plural phrases:

dá: two

trí: three

pethr: four

pimp: five

five teachers >

four birds >

three bulls >

two buckets >

You can check your answers below.

Answers:

car (car) > cáré

sesa (chair) > sesáé

roth (wheel) > róthé

aríthis (table) > arithísé

dulu (paper) > dulúé

cumlath (plate) > cumláthé

cladhal (knife) > cladhálé

gaval (fork) > gaválé

bóthéi (stable) > bóthéié [/o/ of bó stays long because it is etymologically determined]

bochwídhu (spoon) > bochwidhúé

cilurn (bucket) > cilurné

cerdhl (work) > cerdhlé

tarinch (nail) > tarinché

crósu (wave) > crosúé

brí (hill) > bríé

coch (leg) > cóché

aus (ear) > ausé

dós (arm) > dósé

durn (fist) > durné

legs of a woman > dáchoch ben

ears of a girl > daus geneth

arms of a boy > dádhós mapath

eyes of a man > dáóp gwir

legs of a dog > cóché cun

ears of a horse > ausé ép

arms of a river > dósé ávon

eyes of a crab > ópé carchu

legs of girls > cóché genéthé

ears of men > ausé gwíré

arms of women > dósé mná

eyes of boys > ópé mapathé

five teachers > pimp menrodhíath

four birds > pethr ethn

three bulls > tri táru

two buckets > dá cilurn

                                                                                                          

Menghavan 6: Anúé Benin Can in hAmosanal – Gwerthanálé Coswaus Anolsam

 

Lesson6: Feminine Nouns With The Article – Initial Consonant Mutations

In the sixth lesson you will learn what happens to feminine nouns after the article.

Feminine Nouns And The Article

When feminine nouns are preceded by the article “in” their initial consonant changes according to regular patterns. This change is what marks the nouns as feminine.

par > in bar (cauldron – the cauldron)

taran > in daran (storm – the storm)

carch > in garch (rock – the rock)

ben > in ven (woman – the woman)

dúithir > in dhúithir (daughter – the daughter)

glan > in ghlan (river bank – the river bank)

máthir > in wáthir (mother – the mother)

sir > in shir (star – the star)

spáthl > in ‘páthl (story – the story)

nath > in nhath (fate – the fate)

rath > in rhath (fern – the fern)

latha > in latha (swamp – the swamp)

fich > in fhich (fig – the fig)

The semi-vowel i- (/y/ in English, [j]) is prefixed with a ch’:

iar > in ch’iar (chicken – the chicken)

Vowels are prefixed with a h-:

aval > in haval (apple – the apple)

épis > in hépis (mare – the mare)

úlidh > in húlidh (feast – the feast)

ídh > in hídh (chain – the chain)

oghran > in hoghran (frost – the frost)

If the nouns are in the plural exactly the same thing happens:

páré > in báré

taráné > in daráné

carché > in garché

mná > in wná

dúithíré > in dhúithíré

gláné > in ghláné

Initial Consonant Mutation Changes

The changes shown above are regular, they happen like that all the time. They are summarised below:

p > b

t > d

c > g

b > v

d > dh

g > gh

m > w

s > sh if followed by a wowel

s > ‘ [nothing] if followed by a consonant

n > nh

r > rh

l > lh

f > fh

i- > ch’i- if followed by a vowel

i- > hi- if followed by a consonant

a > ha

e > he

u > hu

o > ho

Some of these sounds are unusual.

dh = as in English the, there

gh = as in Greek έγώ (I, me), Breton delc’h (to hold). The sound is called “voiced velar

fricative”. Like a Scottish –ch (as in loch) but said with a “thick voice” (i.e. voiced).

sh = as in English ship

h- = as in English house

ch’ = as in Scottish loch

nh = ch- as in Scottish loch, followed by –n > sounds like chn-.

rh = ch- as in Scottish loch, followed by –r > sounds like chr-.

lh = ch- as in Scottish loch, followed by –l > sounds like chl-.

fh = an /f/ produced without the tongue touching the teeth. The sound is called “voiceless bilabial fricative”.

Of these sounds h-, sh-, fh-, nh-, rh- and lh- only ever occur as initial consonant mutations.

Exercises

Put the article in front of the following words and change the consonants if necessary.

pan (glas, cup) >

penálé (chapters) >

tal (front) >

támé (classes) >

cái (hedge) >

calghé (points) >

bach > burden

baláné (brooms) >

daghl (torch) >

dáré (rages) >

gaval (fork) >

gnáthé (children) >

fich (fig) >

fíché >

mái (place) >

máné (necks) >

sachrap (evil eye) >

sálé (sheds) >

scáth (shadow) >

spríé (twigs) >

ial (clearing) >

iatháné (loans) >

nan (hunger) >

nascálé (rings) >

ran (part) >

ratháné (guarantees) >

lam (hand) >

láné (fields) >

áchn (milk) >

avanché (water spirits) >

ili (ivy) >

íthwéráné (distributions) >

ódhan (smell) >

olchraváné (descriptions) >

uchan (rise) >

uláé (powders) >

échal (hoof) >

echwichnáé (losses) >

You check your answers below.

Answers

pan (glas, cup) > in ban

penálé (chapters) > in benálé

tal (front) > in dal

támé (classes) > in dámé

cái (hedge) > in gái

calghé (points) > in galghé

bach (burden) > in vach

baláné (brooms) > in valáné

daghl (torch) > in dhaghl

dáré (rages) > in dháré

gaval (fork) > in ghaval

gnáthé (children) > in ghnáthé

fich (fig) > in fhich

fíché > in fhíché

mái (place) > in wái

máné (necks) > in wáné

sachrap (evil eye) > in shachrap

sálé (sheds) > in shálé

scáth (shadow) > in ‘cáth

spríé (twigs) > in ‘príé

ial (clearing) > in ch’ial

iatháné (loans) > in ch’iatháné

nan (hunger) > in nhan

nascálé (rings) > in nhascálé

ran (part) > in rhan

ratháné (guarantees) > in rhatháné

lam (hand) > in lham

láné (fields) > in lháné

áchn (milk) > in háchn

avanché (water spirits) > in havanché

ili (ivy) > in hili

íthwéráné (distributions) > in híthweráné

ódhan (smell) > in hódhan

olchraváné (descriptions) > in holchraváné

uchan (rise) > in huchan

uláé (powders) > in huláé

échal (hoof) > in héchal

echwichnáé (losses) > in hechwichnáé

                                                                                                          

Menghavan 7: Achathéné

                                                                                                                

Lesson 7: Adjectives – The Verb To Be

In the seventh lesson you will learn about adjectives, and how to use the verb “to be”.

Adjectives

An adjective is a word that describes a quality or a characteristic of a noun.

sen: old

ióinch: young

sír: long

bir: short

már: big

méi: small

ardhu: high

íth: low

duv: black

gwin: white

galv: fat

dái: good

druch: bad

There are different kinds of adjectives. The ones listed above are all natural adjectives. Adjectives can also be formed from other words by using suffixes and prefixes.

The suffix -ach

The suffix –ach can be used to make an adjective from another word, most usually a noun.

caran: friend > caranach: friendly

carath: love > caráthach: loveable

nerth: strength > nerthach: strong

caun: owl > caunach: owlish

barn: judgement > barnach: judgemental

achaun: stone > achaunach: stony

The suffix –ch

The suffix –ch is similar to the suffix –ach. It is used for words ending on a diphthong in –i or on –u, where –ach would be impractical.

grau: sand > grauch: sandy

téi: house > téich: domestic

The suffix -ídhu

The suffix –ídhu is used for words that end on –ch, to avoid doubling up of the –ch- sound.

boch: mouth > bochídhu: mouthy

coch: leg > cochidhu: leggy

carch: rock > carchídhu: rocky

bruch: heather > bruchídhu: heathery

The suffix -in

The suffix –in is only used to describe qualities of living creatures, people, animals etc.

bledh: wolf > bledhin: wolf-like (lupine)

gwir: man > gwirin: masculine

ben: woman > benin: feminine

ép: horse > épin: equine

cun: dog > cunin: canine

ernu: eagle > ernúin: aquiline

The prefixes su- and du-

The prefixes su- (good) and du- (bad) can be attached to nouns to create adjectives.

áiedh: face > su+áiedh = good looking

> du+ áiedh = ugly

If the emphasis in these constructions is not on the vowel /u/ of the prefixes, they become sw- and dw-

> swáiedh: good looking

> dwáiedh: ugly

Position of the adjective

An adjective always follows the nouns it says something about.

gwir: man > gwir caranach: a friendly man

mapath: boy > mapath méi: a little boy

cun: dog > cun duv: a black dog

ép: horse > ép gwin: a white horse

Mutation of the adjective

If an adjective says something about a feminine noun it undergoes mutation of its initial consonant. This is how gender is indicated.

ben: woman

tech: beautiful

> ben dech: a beautiful woman

épis: a mare

áchu: fast

> épis háchu: a fast mare

geneth: girl

gwimp: pretty

> geneth chwimp

The adjective does not change for the plural.

in ghenéthé chwimp: the pretty girls

in wná dech: the beautiful women

in gwíré galv: the fat men

The verb “to be”

The verb “to be” is the only irregular verb in modern Gaulish.

The verbal root (or infinitive) is “bis”.

> gwéla mi bis láen = I want to be happy

The present tense form is “esi”. It does not take an –a.

> Esi mi láen = I am happy

Exercises

Construct the following sentences. You can check your answers at the end of the lesson.

The horse is big >

The dog is fat >

the woman is young >

the man is old >

the girl is small >

the stone is short >

the house is long >

the judgement is bad >

the owl is low >

the sand is white >

the mare is friendly >

the mouth is big >

the wolfish man >

the equine woman >

the young girl >

the fat boy >

the high eagle >

the low stone >

the black rock >

the white heather >

the ugly mouth >

the long leg >

the strong horse >

the bad love >

the young girls see the white horses >

the old men call the fat dogs >

the friendly women want the little boys >

the big dogs love the black stones >

the little girls hold the owlish dogs >

the bad boys break the long stones >

Answers

The horse is big > esi in ép már

The dog is fat > esi in cun galv

the woman is young > esi in ven ch’ióinch

the man is old > esi in gwir sen

the girl is small > esi in gheneth wéi

the stone is short > esi in achaun bir

the house is long > esi in téi sír

the judgement is bad > esi in varn dhruch

the owl is low > esi in caun íth

the sand is white > esi in grau gwin

the mare is friendly > esi in hépis garanach

the mouth is big > esi in boch már

the wolfish man > in gwir bledhin

the equine woman > in ven hépin

the young girl > in gheneth ch’ióinch

the fat boy > in mapath galv

the high eagle > in ernu ardhu

the low stone > in achaun íth

the black rock > in garch dhuv

the white heather > in bruch gwin

the ugly mouth > in boch dwáiedh

the long leg > in coch sír

the strong horse > in ép nerthach

the bad love > in garath druch

the young girls see the white horses > apísa in ghenéthé ch’ióinch in épé gwin

the old men call the fat dogs > gára in gwíré sen in cúné galv

the friendly women want the little boys > gwéla in wná garanach in mapáthé méi

the big dogs love the black rocks > cára in cúné már in garché dhuv

the little girls hold the owlish dogs > delgha in ghenéthé wéi in cúné caunin

the bad boys break the long stones > brísa in mapáthe druch in achauné sír

                                                                                                          

Menghavan 8: Rivrethré

                                                                                                                

Lesson 8: Adverbs

In the eighth lesson you will learn about adverbs.

Adverbs

An adverb is a word that describes a quality or a characteristic of a verbal action.

English examples are: quickly, quietly, calmly, naturally, normally. In English they are usually formed with the suffix –ly.

In Galáthach adverbs are formed by placing the particle “in” in front of an adjective. The adjective undergoes mutation of its initial consonant.

áchu: quick

in háchu: quickly

áva mi chí: I do it

> áva mi chí in háchu: I do it quickly

tau: quiet

in dau: quietly

spá í chí: she says it

> spá í chí in dau: she says it quietly

aram: calm

in haram: calm

réna in avon: the river flows

> réna in avon in haram: the river flows calmly

amvíthach: natural

in hamvíthach: naturally

gwóra cráré mel: bees produce honey

> gwóra cráré mel in hamvíthach

suves: normal

in shuves: normally

né chwergha í co shé: she doesn’t act like that

> né chwergha í co shé in shuves

Position of the adverb

The adverb always follows the verb as closely as possible, after the subject and object of the phrase.

Gwóra cráré mel in hamvíthach // “produce bees honey naturally”

Verb   Sub. Obj.    Adverb               V          S     O          Adv

Exercises

Construct the adverbial form of the following adjectives. You can check your answers at the end of the lesson.

cóil (narrow) >

lithan (wide) >

dianauch (poor) >

téithwár (wealthy) >

ardhu (high) >

íth (low) >

pethrarpenach (square) >

róthach (round) >

dái (good) >

druch (bad) >

Answers

cóil > in góil (narrowly)

lithan > in lhithan (widely)

dianauch > in dhianauch (poorly)

téithwár > in déithwár (wealthily)

ardhu > in hardhu (highly)

íth > in híth (lowly)

pethrarpenach > in betharpenach (squarely)

róthach > in rhothach (roundly)

dái > in dhái (well)

druch > in dhruch (badly)

Menghavan 9: Gwepráié

                                                                                                                

Lesson 9: Prepositions

In the nineth lesson you will learn about prepositions. A preposition is a word that provides information about the location, situation or position of something.

Prepositions

All prepositions in modern Gaulish cause initial consonant mutation on the word that follows them.

esi: is

ép: horse

anel: underneath

pren: tree

> esi ép anel bren: there is a horse underneath a tree (litt. “a horse is underneath a tree”)

sédhi: sit

gwir: man

ur: against

carch: rock

> sédha gwir ur garch: a man sits against a rock

esi: is

gwolth: hair

en: in

iuth: soup

> esi gwolth en ch’iuth: there is a hair in a soup

esi: am

mi: I

e: from

tóth: people

ríu: free

> esi mi e dóth ríu: I am from a free people

áia: go

í: she

a: to

tráith: beach

> áia í a dráith: she goes to a beach

Prepositions do not cause mutations on the article “in” or on possessive pronouns

> esi ép gwó in pren

> esi gwolth en mó ch’iuth: there is a hair in my soup

With personal pronouns

Prepositions fuse with personal pronouns:

can: with

mi: I

> canim: with me

gwer: on

ti: you

> gwerith: on you

nes: near

ni: we

> nesin: near us

Patterns

Prepositions fuse with personal pronouns according to regular patterns. There are four different categories for these patterns.

  1. Prepositions ending in consonants

These are:

can, ar, ern, ur, cin, ós, gwer, en, tar, am, ér, échan, enther, uchel, anel

(with, before, behind, against, after, on, in, through, about, around, without, between, above, below)

These take the following endings:

-im, -ith, -é, -í, -in, -sú, -ís

canim: with me

canith: with you

cané: with him

caní: with her

canin: with us

cansú: with you (pl.)

canís: with them

The emphasis in these forms falls on the last syllable:

can’im: with me

  1. Prepositions ending in vowels

These are:

ri, di, tré, co, éithra, anó, echó (for, off, across, than/as, beyond, inside, outside)

These take the following endings:

-em, -eth, -ché, -chí, -en, -sú, -chís

riem: for me

rieth: for you

riché: for him

richí: for her

rien: for us

risú: for you (pl.)

richís: for them

The preposition “tré” takes a special form of this. It adds an –i- to the front of the 1st, 2nd and 5th form: –iem, –ieth, -ché, -chí, -ien, -sú, -chís:

tréiem: across me

tréieth: across you

tréché: across him

tréchí: across her

tréien: across us

trésú: across you (pl.)

tréchís: across them

  1. Prepositions consisting only of one vowel

These are: a, e, u, i (to, from, of [with quantity], of [property])

These take the following endings:

-im, -ith, -é, -í, -in, -ú, -ís

Also, the root form of the preposition changes:

a > adh-

e > ech-

u > uch-

i > ich-

adhim: to me

adhith: to you

adhé: to him

adhí: to her

adhin: to us

adhú: to you (pl.)

adhís: to them

  1. Prepositions ending on -u

These are: au, didhíu (away from, outside)

These prepositions don’t fuse with personal pronouns. The personal pronouns follow after them without changing. The object pronouns are used.

au mi: away from me

au ti: away from you

au ché: away from him

au chí: away from her

au ni: away from us

au sú: away from you (pl.)

au chís: away from them

Exercises

can, ar, ern, ur, cin, ós, gwer, en, tar, am, ér, échan, uchel, anel, enther; ri, di, tré, co, éithra, anó, echó; a, e, u, i; au, didhíu, nes

you go with me:

I stand before you:

the sun is behind him:

the wind is against her:

this happens before it:

this happens after it:

the rain falls on us:

the power is in you (pl.):

the music goes through them:

the people talk about me:

the mountains are around you:

the girl goes without him:

the sky is above us:

the earth is below you (pl.):

the desert is between them:

the work is for me:

the sweat falls off you:

it passes across him:

she is as big as her:

it is beyond us:

the problem is inside of you (pl.):

the solution is outside of them:

she comes to me:

it comes from you:

five litres of it:

the beer is of-him [his]:

they run away from her

the demon is outside of us:

the monster is near them:

You can check your answers below.

Answers

you go with me: áia ti canim

I stand before you: sáia mi arith

the sun is behind him: esi in súel erné

the wind is against her: esi in áel urí

this happens before it: gwéra sin ciní

this happens after it: gwéra sin ósí

the rain falls on us: cóima in hamr gwerin

the power is in you (pl.): esi in gus ensú

the music goes through them: áia in ganthl tarís

the people talk about me: lavára in dóné amim

the mountains are around you: esi in vríé érith

the girl goes without him: áia in gheneth echané

the sky is above us: esi in nem uchelin

the earth is below you (pl.): esi in lithau anelsú

the desert is between them: esi in dithrev entherís

the work is for me: esi in cerdhl riem

the sweat falls off you: cóima in shwís dieth

it passes across him: gwéra í tréché

she is as big as her: esi í co wár cochí

it is beyond us: esi í éithraen

the problem is inside of you (pl.): esi in dhuchuthas anósú

the answer is outside of them: esi in hathespath echóchís

she walks to me: cáma í adhim

it comes from you: diáia í echith

five litres of it: pimp lithr uchí

the beer is of-him [his]: esi in curu iché

they run away from her: rétha sí au chí

the demon is outside of us: esi in dus dhidhíu ni

the monster is near you (pl.): esi in havanch nesú

 

Menghavan 10: Gweranúé Téithach – Adhavachúé – Nithachúé

 

Lesson 10: Possessive Pronouns – Demonstratives – Locatives

In the tenth lesson you will learn what possessive pronouns and demonstratives are, and how they work.

  1. Possessive Pronouns

A possessive pronoun is a word that indicates possession of a thing. In Lesson 2 and 3 we learned two ways of indicating possession: by using the possession indicating particle i-, and by putting two things next to each other, with or without the article between them. Using a possessive pronoun is the third way of indicating possession.

A possessive pronoun is a word that comes before an other word and that indicates possession of the second word: my, your, his, her etc.

cun: dog

mó: my

> mó gun: my dog

The possessive pronoun causes mutation on the following word in most cases, but not for the 3rd person singular feminine and not for the second person plural.

mó: my

tó: your

ó: his

ó: her

nó: our

só: your (pl.)

só: their

Because the third and the fourth and the sixth and the seven are the same, they are distinguished by the mutation: the third and the sixth cause mutation, the fourth and the seventh don’t.

mó (my): mut.

tó (your): mut.

ó (his): mut.

ó (her): no mut.

nó (our): mut.

só (your pl.): no mut.

só (their): mut.

gun: my dog

gun: your dog

ó gun: his dog

ó cun: her dog

gun: our dog

cun: your (pl.) dog

gun: their dog

Remember that possession can also be expressed with the particle i-. In that case it uses the object pronouns, and they follow after the possessed thing.

cun imí: a dog of mine

cun ithí: a dog of yours

cun iché: a dog of his

cun ichí: a dog of hers

cun iní: a dog of ours

cun isú: a dog of yours (pl.)

cun ichís: a dog of theirs

Excercises

Using the words below translate the following phrases. You can find the answers at the end of the lesson.

épis: mare

bó: cow

táru: bull

molth: sheep

gavr: goat

camoch: mountain goat

élan: doe

úru: aurochs

cáru: deer

avanch: water monster

bevr: beaver

mórchun: dolphin

anchrái: salmon

garan: heron

my mare:

your cow:

his bull:

her sheep:

our goat:

your (pl.) mountain goat:

their doe:

my aurochs:

your deer:

his water monster:

her beaver:

our dolphin:

your (pl.) salmon:

their heron:

  1. Demonstratives

A demonstrative is a word that indicates another word: this, that, those, these.

In Galáthach the demonstratives have two parts.

  1. the article “in” before the word
  2. the words –sin or –sé hyphenated to the end of the word

cun: dog

> in cun-sin: this dog

> in cun-sé: that dog

If the word is feminine the article causes mutation.

cunis: bitch

> in gunis-sin: this bitch

> in gunis-sé: that bitch

If the word is plural the article and the demonstratives stay the same.

in cúné-sin: these dogs

in gunísé-sé: those bitches

Excercises:

Translate the following phrases. You can find the answers at the end of the lesson.

this mare:

that cow:

these bulls:

those sheep:

this goat:

that mountain goat:

these does:

those aurochses:

this deer:

that water monster:

these beavers:

those dolphins:

this salmon:

that heron:

  1. Locatives

Locatives are words that indicate a position: here, there.

There are two locatives in Galáthach.

insin: here

insé: there

Esi in cun insin: the dog is here

Esi in gunis insé: the bitch is there

Esi in cun-sin insin: this dog is here

Esi in gunis-sé insé: that bitch is there

Excercises:

Translate the following phrases. You can find the answers at the end of the lesson.

the mare is here:

the cows are there:

this bull is here:

that sheep is there:

these goats are here:

those mountain goats are there:

the doe is here:

the aurochses are there:

this deer is here:

that water monster is there:

these beavers are here:

those dolphins are there:

this salmon is here:

that heron is there:

Answers

Excercises 1

my mare: mó hépis

your cow: tó vó

his bull: ó dáru

her sheep: ó molth

our goat: nó ghavr

your (pl.) mountain goat: só camoch

their doe: só hélan

my aurochs: mó húru

your deer: tó gáru

his water monster: ó havanch

her beaver: ó bevr

our dolphin: nó wórchun

your (pl.) salmon: só anchrái

their heron: só gharan

Excercises 2

this mare: in hépis-sin

that cow: in bó-sé

these bulls: in tarúé-sin

those sheep: in molthé-sé

this goat: in ghavr-sin

that mountain goat: in camoch-sé

these does: in heláné-sin

those aurochses: in hurúé-sé

this deer: in cáru-sin

that water monster: in havanch-sé

these beavers: in bevré-sin

those dolphins: in morchúné-sé

this salmon: in hanchrái-sin

that heron: in gharan-sé

Excercises 3

the mare is here: esi in hépis insin

the cows are there: esi in bóé insé

this bull is here: esi in táru-sin insin

that sheep is there: esi in molth-sé insé

these goats are here: esi in ghavré-sin insin

those mountain goats are there: esi in camóché-sé insé

the doe is here: esi in hélan insin

the aurochses are there: esi in urúé insé

this deer is here: esi in cáru-sin insin

that water monster is there: esi in havanch-sé insé

these beavers are here: esi in bevré-sin insin

those dolphins are there: esi in morchúné insé

this salmon is here: esi in hanchrái-sin insin

that heron is there: esi in gharan-sé insé

 

Menghavan 11: Colaváru – Mésu Péthach – Inchoran Chwoghníthach

 

Lesson 11: Conversation – Interrogative Mode– Subordinate Clause

 

In the eleventh lesson you will learn how to construct a question, and how to construct sentences within sentences.

1. Conversation

 

Below is a conversation between two people. Bren is a man, Chiomára is a woman. Both are traditional Gaulish names. Bren was the leader of the attack on Delphi in 279 BCE, Chiomára was a woman from Galatia. This conversation shows you how questions are constructed.

Bren and Chiomara

Bren: Di wath. Pé gaman a hesi ti?

(Bren: Good day. How are you?)

 

Chiomára: Esi mi in rhé dhái, bráthu. Ach ti-súé?

(Chiomara: I am very well, thank you. And yourself?)

 

Bren: Esi mi in dhái cóéth, bráthu. A ghnía ti o ti-esi pen ré dech?

(Bren: I am well too, thank you. Do you know that you have a beautiful head?)

 

Chiomára: Gnía mi … pé a chwéla ti?

(Chiomara: I know … what do you want?)

 

Bren: A ghála mi bé ichí a brenuchi ichí gwer mó shédhl’ép?

(Bren: Can I cut if [off] to hang it on my saddle?)

 

Chiomára: Conechughri!

(Chiomára: Fuck off!)

 

Vocabulary:

 

pé: what (causes ICM on following word)

caman: road, way

> pé gaman: how

 

dí: day

math: good

> dí wath: good day (ICM because “dí” is a feminine word)

 

dái: good

ré: very (causes ICM on the following word)

in: adverbial marker (causes ICM on the following word)

> in rhé dhái: very well

 

bráthu: thank you (thanks)

 

ti: you

súé: self

> ti-súé: yourself

 

ach: and

 

cóéth: also, too, as well

 

gní: to know

gnía ti: you know

a: question particle (causes ICM on the following word)

> a ghnía ti: do you know

 

o: relative pronoun for subordinate clauses > “that, which”; see further below

 

ti-esi: you have > see below

 

pen: head

tech: beautiful

> pen ré dech: a very beautiful head

 

gwéla ti: you want

pé a chwéla ti: what do you want

 

gála mi: I can

a ghála mi: can I?

 

bé: to cut

 

prenuchi: to hang

 

gwer: on

 

sédhl: seat

ép: horse

> sédhl’ép: saddle (horse-seat)

 

conechughri: to fuck off (idiomatic expression)

 

2. Question Formation

 

As you can see above questions are made by putting the question particle “a” in front of the verb in the sentence.

 

gnía ti: you know > statement.

a ghnía ti?: do you know? > question.

 

The word order doesn’t change. The only difference is the question particle “a”. It causes an initial consonant mutation (ICM) on the following word.

 

gála mi: I can > statement.

a ghála mi?: can I? > question.

 

Question Words

 

pé: what, which

pé gaman: how

pí: who

péri: why

pémái: where

ponch: when

 

3. The Verb To Have

 

Galáthach does not have a specific verb “to have”. Instead it uses a compound construction using the verb “to be”. It is made of the personal pronoun of the entity that “has” something, followed by the verb “to be”. The two are connected with a hyphen.

 

mi-esi ép: I have a horse

 

> mi-esi translates as “with-me, to-me” > mi-esi ép = “to-me” is a horse

 

The conjugation is as follows:

 

mi-esi: I have

ti-esi: you have

é-esi: he has

í-esi: she has

ni-esi: we have

sú-esi: you (pl.)

sí-esi: they have

 

If the subject of a phrase is specified it comes first, followed by the pronoun+to-be construction.

 

in gwir: the man

é-esi: he has

cun: dog

> in gwir é-esi cun: the man has a dog

 

in dóné: the people

sí-esi: they have

gavré: goats

> in dóné sí-esi gavré: the people have goats

 

In a question the question particle “a” comes before the pronoun+to-be construction. It causes mutation to the first letter of the construction.

 

pé a di-esi: what do you have?

péri a shú-esi épé: why do you (pl.) have horses?

 

In a question where the subject is specified the question particle comes between the subject and the pronoun+to-be construction.

 

péri in gwir a hé-esi cun: why does the man have a dog?

péri in dóné a shí-esi gavré: why do the people have goats?

 

 

Excercises 1

 

Construct the following phrases. You can find your answers at the end of the lesson.

 

What’s your name?

Where do you live?

How are you?

Who is your friend?

Why are you here?

When is your birthday?

 

I have a name:

you have a dog:

he has a horse:

she has a cow:

we have beer:

you (pl.) have wine:

they have nothing:

 

the horse has long ears:

the man has a fat nose:

the children have dirty feet:

 

Why do you have a big head?

Why do they have small hands?

Why do the women have long hair?

Why do the cows have short horns?

 

Vocabulary

 

anu: name

bithi: to live

esi: to be

caran: friend

insin: here

pen’vlédhn: birthday (pen + blédhn “head-year”)

cun: dog

ép: horse

bó: cow

curu: beer

gwín: wine

néveth: nothing

pen: head

már: big

sír: long

trughn: nose

galv: fat

traiéthé: feet (of more than one person)

luthrach: dirty

lámé: hands (of more than one person)

méi: small

gwolth: hair

carnu: horn

bir: short

 

4. Subordinate clauses

 

A subordinate clause is a sentence inside of another sentence. It has a verb, subject and object that are independent of the main sentence. The two are linked with the particle “o”, which translates in English as “that” or “which”.

 

gnía ti: you know

o: that

ti-esi: you have

pen: a head

tech: beautiful

> gnía ti o ti-esi pen tech: you know that you have a beautiful head

 

apísa mi: I see

o: that

né hesi: there is not

curu: beer

éth: more

> apísa mi o né hesi curu éth: I see that there is no more beer

 

In the subordinate clause the second sentence (“there is no more beer”) can stand alone independently from the first one (“I see”). The two are connected by the particle “o”.

 

If the particle “o”is followed by a word that starts with a vowel it becomes “och”.

 

gwídha mi: I understand

o: that

esi ti: you are

lisc: tired

> gwídha mi och esi ti lisc: I understand that you are tired

 

 

Excercises 2

 

Construct the following phrases. You can find your answers at the end of the lesson.

 

you deserve that I hit you:

the man sees that the horse is drunk:

the children hear that the dogs howl:

the women know that their hair is long:

the goats hope that they have horns:

he thinks that he is clever:

she knows that he is stupid:

the people don’t know that they have fat noses:

 

Vocabulary

 

gwescára: to deserve

bói: to hit

mesc: drunk

clúi: to hear

duchan: to howl

gwómen: to hope

men: to think

suchwís: clever

duchwís: stupid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Answers 1

 

What’s your name: Pé a hesi tó hanu?

Where do you live: Pémái a vítha ti?

How are you: Pé gaman a hesi ti?

Who is your friend: Pí a hesi tó garan?

Why are you here: Péri a hesi ti insin?

When is your birthday: Ponch a hesi tó ben’vlédhn?

 

I have a name: mi-esi anu

you have a dog: ti-esi cun

he has a horse: é-esi ép

she has a cow: í-esi bó

we have beer: ni-esi curu

you (pl.) have wine: sú-esi gwín

they have nothing: sí-esi néveth

 

the horse has long ears: in ép é-esi daus sír

the man has a fat nose: in gwir é-esi trughn galv

the children have dirty feet: in gnáthé sí-esi tráiéthé luthrach

 

Why do you have a big head: Péri a di-esi pen már?

Why do they have small hands: péri a shí-esi lámé wéi?

Why do the women have long hair: Péri in wná a shí-esi gwolth sír?

Why do the cows have short horns: Péri in bóé a shí-esi carnúé bir?

 

Answer 2

 

you deserve that I hit you: gwescára ti o bóia mi ti

the man sees that the horse is drunk: apísa in gwir och esi in ép mesc

the children hear that the dogs howl: clúia in gnáthé o duchána in cúné

the women know that their hair is long: gnía in wná och esi só chwolth sír

the goats hope that they have horns: gwóména in gavré o sí-esi carnúé

he thinks that he is clever: ména é och esi é suchwís

she knows that he is stupid: gnía í och esi é duchwís

the people don’t know that they have fat noses: né ghnía in dóné o sí-esi trughné galv

 

Menghavan 12: Inchoráné Rhéiach – Inchoráné hAnréiach

 

Lesson 12: Direct Clauses – Indirect Clauses

 

In the twelfth lesson you will learn what direct and indirect clauses are, and how they are constructed in Galáthach.

 

 

Conversation

 

Below are two conversations between three people. Tarchonwoth is a man, Tuthchána and Cunvára are women. All three are attested Gaulish names. These conversations show you how direct clauses and indirect clauses are constructed.

 

collage 3

 

Tarchonwoth: Dí wath, pé gaman a hesi ti?

(Tarchonwoth: Good day, how are you?)

 

Tuthchána: Dí wath adhith cóéth. Esi mi in dhái, bráthu. Ach ti-súé?

(Tuthchana: Good day to you too. I am well, thank you. And yourself?)

 

Tarchonwoth: Esi mi in dhái cóéth.

(Tarchonwoth: I am well too.)

 

Tuthchána: Gwerthamich.

(Tuthchana: Excellent.)

 

Tarchonwoth: Gwéla mi prin ép. A ghnía ti don nep o gála é rinóthi ép adhim?

(Tarchonwoth: I want to buy a horse. Do you know any person who can sell a horse to me?)

 

Tuthchána: Gnía mi. Gnía mi ben shen o gála ó dúithir rinóthi ép adhith. Esi ó anu Cunvára. Ái a gantha hal in bron ach pétha adhí insé.

 

(Tuthchana: I do. I know an old woman whose daughter can sell a horse to you. Her name is Cunvara. Go to the other side of the hill and ask her there.)

 

Tarchonwoth: Bráthu ré hélu, esi ti ré chwórethwár.

(Tarchonwoth: Thanks very much, you’re very helpful.)

 

Tuthchána: Esi í mó harúer imí. Esi í neveth.

(Tuthchana: It’s my pleasure. It’s nothing.)

 

[Áia Tarchonwoth a hápis in ven shen a gantha hal in bron.]

 

Tarchonwoth: Dí wath. A hesi í ti-súé o tó dhúithir í-esi ép a brin?

(Tarchonwoth: Good day. Is it yourself whose daughter has a horse to buy?)

 

Cunvára: Esi í mi-súé. A chwéla ti ápis in ép o gála mó dhúithir rinóthi ichí?

(Cinvara: It is myself. Do you want to see the horse that my daughter can sell?)

 

Tarchonwoth: In chwír, gwéla mi.

(Tarchonwoth: Yes, I do.)

 

Cunvára: Esi é insé, derchi. A harwéra é adhith?

(Cunvára: It is there, look. Does it please you?)

 

 

Vocabulary

 

gwerthamich: excellent

prin: to buy

don nep: any/some person

rinóthi: to sell

ben: woman

sen: old

dúithir: daughter

cantha: side

al: other

bron: hill

derchi: to look

  1. Direct Clauses

 

A direct clause is a part of a sentence that refers back to the subject of the previous part of the sentence.

 

> this is the man who wants to buy a horse

 

The direct clause is “who wants to buy a horse”. The word “who” refers to “the man”, which was the subject of the previous part of the sentence “this is the man”.

 

In Galáthach there are four ways of constructing this sentence:

 

  1. a) introducing the clause with the word “o” and not restating the subject. The word “o” means “that” or “which”. If it is followed by a word that starts with a vowel it becomes “och”.

 

esi: is

sin: this

in gwir: the man

o: that (which)

gwel: to want

prin: to buy

in ép: the horse

 

> esi sin in gwir o gwéla prin in ép: this is the man who wants to buy the horse

 

The word “o” connects the two phrases and refers to “the man”. There is no confusion because there is no other word in the second phrase that can be interpreted as a subject:

 

gwéla prin in ép: want buying the horse

 

The word “ép” can not be interpreted as a subject because it does not follow the verb immediately. In this case there is no need to restate the subject.

 

  1. b) introducing the clause with the word “o” and restating the subject. This is necessary when there can be confusion about which is the subject of the second phrase.

 

esi sin in gwir o gwéla in ép > this sentence can be interpreted in two ways:

 

– this is the man who wants the horse

– this is the man who the horse wants

 

Because the words “in ép”, “the horse” follow directly after the verb they can be interpreted as being the subject of the second verb “gwel”, “wanting”.

 

Therefore the subject needs to be restated with a pronoun that refers back to the subject of the first phrase. This is called using a resumptive pronoun.

 

esi sin in gwir o gwéla é in ép: this is the man who wants the horse

 

The literal translation of this sentence is “this is the man that he wants the horse”.

 

In reality the direct clause becomes a subordinate clause linked to the main clause with the word “o”.

 

  1. c) linking the second clause to the first clause with the suffix –ió which gets attached to the end of the verb of the second clause.

 

esi sin in gwir gwelió in ép: this is the man who wants the horse

 

The suffix –ió always refers back to the subject immediately in front of it. The literal translation of this sentence is something like “this is the man wanting the horse”.

 

  1. d) linking the second clause to the first clause with the preposition “en” in front of the verb. This causes initial consonant mutation on the verb. The verb is in the root or infinitive form.

 

esi sin in gwir en chwel in ép

 

The literal translation of this sentence is “this is the man wanting the horse”. It is the same as using the suffix –ió.

 

Because the verb is in the root or infinitive form there can be no confusion about what is the subject of the second clause, because a subject can never follow a verb in the root or infinitive form.

 

Using the preposition “en” to link a second clause to a main clause can only be done in the present tense.

 

 

People choose freely from these four ways of constructing direct clauses. However, the second one (b) is the easiest one.

 

 

  1. Indirect Clauses

 

A direct clause is a part of a sentence that refers back to the subject of the previous part of the sentence, but in an indirect way.

 

this is the man whose daughter wants to buy the horse

 

The second clause starts with “whose daughter”. The words “whose daughter” refer back to the subject of the previous clause, but the actual subject of the second clause is the daughter, not the man himself.

 

In Galáthach there is only one way to construct this sentence. The clause is introduced with the word “o” and the subject is stated independently. The subject becomes “his daughter”.

 

esi sin in gwir o gwéla ó dhúithir prin in ép

 

The literal translation of this sentence is “this is the man that his daughter wants to buy the horse”. As above in Direct Clauses b) the clause becomes a subordinate clause with its own independent subject, linked to the first clause with the word “o”.

 

 

Exercises

 

Translate the following phrases. You can find your answers at the back of this lesson.

 

 

cath: cat

caníath: singer

druch: bad

mapath: child

depri: to eat

grau: sand

lavar: to talk

ióinch: young

derchi: to look (at)

rédhi: to ride

méi: little

geneth: girl

dáthráieth: feet (one pair)

calwár: boot

mer: crazy

líauth: shape

tói: bow

cáthói: arrow

dós: arm

sír: long

nerthach: strong

 

 

That is the woman who talks to cats:

Here is the man who is a bad singer:

This the child that eats sand:

Cunvára is the old woman who talks to Tarchonwoth:

Tarchonwoth is the young man who looks at Tuthchána:

 

Tuthchána is the girl whose sister rides little horses:

Tarchonwoth is the man whose feet are in boots:

Cunvára is the woman whose eyes are crazy:

It is the horse whose legs are in excellent shape:

There goes the woman with the bow and arrows whose arms are long and strong:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Answers

 

 

That is the woman who talks to cats: Esi sé in ven o lavára can gáthé.

Here is the man who is a bad singer: Insin esi in gwir och esi é caníath druch.

This the child that eats sand: Esi sin in mapath o depra é grau

Cunvára is the old woman who talks to Tarchonwoth: Esi Cunvára in ven shen en lhavar can Tarchonwoth.

Tarchonwoth is the young man who looks at Tuthchána: Esi Tarchonwoth in gwir ióinch derchió Tuthchána.

 

Tuthchána is the girl whose sister rides little horses: Esi Tuthchána in gheneth o rédha ó swíor épé méi.

Tarchonwoth is the man whose feet are in boots: Esi Tarchonwoth in gwir och esi ó dháthráieth en galwáré.

Cunvára is the woman who has crazy eyes: Esi Cunvára in ven och í-esi dáop mer.

It is the horse whose legs are in excellent shape: Esi í in ép och esi ó góché en lhíauth gwerthamich.

There goes the woman with the bow and arrows whose arms are long and strong: Insé áia in ven can in tói ach in cáthóíé och esi ó dádhós sír ach nerthach.

 

Menghavan 13: Inchoráné Gwepsin – Inchoráné Gwep Péthan

 

Lesson 13: Conjunction Clauses – Question Word Clauses

 

In the thirteenth lesson you will learn what conjunction and question word clauses are, and how they are constructed in Galáthach.

 

 

Conversation

 

Below is a conversation between two people. Marthal is a man and Suvron is a woman. Both are attested Gaulish names. The conversation shows you how conjunction and question word clauses are constructed.

collage

 

Suvron: Anghnítha mi ma chwéla ti suling canim?

(Suvron: I wonder if you want to dance with me?)

 

Marthal: Né ghnía mi pé a chwéla mi ávó. A chwéla mi suling gwé né a chwéla mi?

(Marthal: I don’t know what I want to do. Do I want to dance or don’t I?)

 

Suvron: Gwéla mi suling canith ach né a chwéla ti?

(Suvron: I want to dance with you and you don’t want to?)

 

Marthal: Gwéla ti suling canim éithr né hesi suling sé o gwéla mi avó.

(Marthal: You want to dance with me but dancing is not what I want to do.)

 

Suvron: A ghnía ti pí a hesi mi?

(Suvron: Do you know who I am?)

 

Marthal: Né ghnía mi. Cóéth, né ghnía mi pé shulingen a hesi sé.

(Marthal: I don’t know. Also, I don’t know what dance that is.)

 

Suvron: A ghnía ti pé gaman a shuling?

(Suvron: Do you know how to dance?)

 

Marthal: Né ghnía mi. Né ghnía mi diaman pémái a hádha mó dhálam, ach né ghnía mi diaman ponch a wantha mó dháthráieth.

(Marthal: I don’t. I never know where to put my hands, and I never know when to move my feet.)

 

Suvron: A ghnía ti péri a chwéla mi o sulinga ti canim?

(Suvron: Do you know why I want you to dance with me?)

 

Marthal: Né ghnía mi. A chwéla ti gní pethi báné u guru a híva mi pap dí?

(Marthal: I don’t. Do you want to know how many glasses of beer I drink every day?)

 

Suvron: Esi mi certh o né chwéla mi gní. Duch, pé a chwéla ti ávó?

(Suvron: I’m sure that I don’t want to know. So, what do you want to do?)

 

Marthal: Gwéla mi ívi curu éth.

(Marthal: I want to drink more beer.)

 

Meaning of names:

 

Marthal: Big Forehead (< Marotalus)

 

Suvron: Good Breast (< Subroni)

 

 

Vocabulary

 

anghníthi: to wonder

gwel: to want

suling: to dance

gní: to know

ávó: to do

éithr: but

cóéth: also

diaman: never

ma: if

pé: what

gwé: or

ach: and

pí: who

pé shulingen: what (which) dance

pé gaman: how (which way)

pémái: where

ponch: when

ádha: to put

dálam: hands (of a person > a pair of hands)

mantha: to move

dáthráieth: feet (of a person > a pair of feet)

péri: why

pethi: how much/how many

pan: cup

u: of (quantity)

curu: beer

ívi: to drink

pap: every

dí: day

duch: so, anyway, go on then, therefore

éth: more

 

 

  1. Conjunction Clauses

 

A conjunction clause is a phrase that is linked to a phrase before it with a conjunction, combining into one sentence. Conjunctions are:

 

ma: if

gwé: or

ach: and

éithr: but

sé o: what/which (“that which”)

 

 

Conjunction clauses found in the conversation above:

 

 

  1. a) Suvron: Anghnítha mi ma chwéla ti suling canim?

(Suvron: I wonder if you want to dance with me?)

 

  1. b) Marthal: A chwéla mi suling gwé né a chwéla mi?

(Marthal: Do I want to dance or don’t I?)

 

  1. c) Suvron: Gwéla mi suling canith ach né a chwéla ti?

(Suvron: I want to dance with you and you don’t want to?)

 

  1. d) Marthal: Gwéla ti suling canim éithr né hesi suling sé o gwéla mi avó.

(Marthal: You want to dance with me but dancing is not what I want to do.)

 

The conjunctions “what” and “which” are very important. They can be used in two ways: as a word that refers to something else and as a question.

 

The English words “what” and “which” that refer to something else are translated by the phrase “sé o”, which literally means “that which”. It is used in the last example above.

 

 

Marthal:[…] né hesi suling sé o gwéla mi avó.

(Marthal: […] dancing is not what I want to do.)

 

In the phrase “… dancing is not what I want to do” the word “what” is translated by “sé o”.

 

In the English translation the word “what” can be replaced by the phrase “that which” without changing the meaning of the sentence. If that can be done you know that the word “what” is used as a conjunction, and not as a question word. If that is the case the word “what” is translated in Galáthach as “sé o”.

 

If the word “what” in the English translation cannot be translated by the phrase “that which”, and a question is implied in the phrase, it needs to be translated by a question word.

 

 

  1. Question Word Clauses

 

A question word clause is a phrase that is linked to a phrase before it with a question word, combining into one sentence. Usually there is an aspect of something unknown implied in the phrase, suggesting a question. Question words are:

 

pí: who

pé: what

pé gaman: how

pémái: where

ponch: when

péri: why

pethi: how many/how much

 

They are followed by the question particle “a” if a question is implied, which is most of the time. In the case of “pethi” (how many) the question particle “a” comes after the specified object (how many/much of something).

 

If a question is not implied they are not followed by the particle “a”. The words “pémái” (where) and “ponch” (when) can be used narratively, to tell a story. In that case they don’t indicate a question and they are not followed by the particle “a”.

 

 

  1. a) Suvron: A ghnía ti pí a hesi mi?

(Suvron: Do you know who I am?)

 

  1. b) Marthal: Né ghnía mi. Cóéth, né ghnía mi pé shulingen a hesi sé.

(Marthal: I don’t know. Also, I don’t know what dance that is.)

 

  1. c) Suvron: A ghnía ti pé gaman a shuling?

(Suvron: Do you know how to dance?)

 

  1. d) Marthal: Né ghnía mi. Né ghnía mi diaman pémái a hádha mó dhálam, ach né ghnía mi diaman ponch a wantha mó dháthráieth.

(Marthal: I don’t. I never know where to put my hands, and I never know when to move my feet.)

 

  1. e) Suvron: A ghnía ti péri a chwéla mi o sulinga ti canim?

(Suvron: Do you know why I want you to dance with me?)

 

  1. f) Marthal: Né ghnía mi. A chwéla ti gní pethi báné u guru a híva mi pap dí?

(Marthal: I don’t. Do you want to know how many glasses of beer I drink every day?)

 

 

Excercises

 

Translate the following sentences. You can find the answers at the end of the lesson.

 

mer: crazy

tech: beautiful

dal: blind

galv: fat

cára: to love

mesc: drunk

duchwís: stupid

clúi: to hear

spá: to say

tiern: boss

dichéni: to show

gwín: wine

ívi: to drink

sóni: to sleep

coimi: to fall

can: to sing

súel: sun

íthi: to go down

 

I want to know if you are crazy:

Are you (fem.) beautiful or am I blind:

I am fat and I love it:

I am drunk but you are stupid:

I can’t hear what you say:

 

I want to know who is the boss:

I don’t understand what you want:

Can you show me how to do it:

I can’t believe how much wine you drink:

I don’t know why you do this:

 

I want to sleep where I fall:

I sing when the sun goes down:

 

 

Answers

 

I want to know if you are crazy: Gwéla mi gní ma hesi ti mer.

Are you (fem.) beautiful or am I blind: A hesi ti dech gwé a hesi mi dal?

I am fat and I love it: Esi mi galv ach cára mi chí.

I am drunk but you are stupid: Esi mi mesc éithr esi ti duchwís.

I can’t hear what you say: Né ghála mi clúi sé o spá ti.

 

I want to know who is the boss: Gwéla mi gní pí a hesi in tiern

I don’t understand what you want: Né chwídha mi pé a chwéla ti.

Can you show me how to do it: A ghála ti dichéni adhim pé gaman a hávó ichí?

I can’t believe how much wine you drink: Né ghála mi crédhi pethi chwin a híva ti.

I don’t know why you do this: Né ghnía mi péri a háva ti sin.

 

I want to sleep where I fall: Gwéla mi sóni pémái cóima mi.

I sing when the sun goes down: Cána mi ponch ítha in súel.

 

Menghavan 14: In Goghníth Vrétrach

 

Lesson 14: The Verbal System

 

In the fourteenth lesson you will learn how the verbal system works in Galáthach.

 

collage-2017-05-19

Conversation

 

Below is a conversation between two people. Gwirchan is a man and Benghal is a woman. Both are attested Gaulish names. The conversation shows you how the verbal system works.

 

Gwirchan: Éi geneth, díái insin!

(Gwirchan: Hey girl, come here!)

Benghal: Né chwéla mi díái insin.

(Benghal: I don’t want to come here.)

Gwirchan: Ména mi o gwelsí ti ápis sin.

(Gwirchan: I think that you will want to see this.)

Benghal: Menthú ti péthé élu cin shin.

(Benghal: You have thought a lot of things before this.)

Gwirchan: Garsíthu mi ti íóné élu cin glúia ti.

(Gwirchan: I will have called you a lot of times before you hear.)

Benghal: Ré glúi mi díes, ach né rhé ‘pá ti neveth.

(Benghal: I heard yesterday, and you didn’t say anything.)

Gwirchan: Ré shedhisí mi insin en ghar ri haman shír cin rhé rhethú ti insin.

(Gwirchan: I would sit here calling for a long time before you had run here.)

Benghal: Esi sé riveth né rhé chwel mi réthi insé. Péri a rhé havósíthu mi sé?

(Benghal: That’s because I didn’t want to run there. Why would I have done that?)

Gwirchan: Né shéthé duchis. Och apisí ti in sudherch-sin tech. Derchi ni sin rochan!

(Gwirchan: Don’t be stupid. May you see this beautiful view. Let us look at it together!)

Benghal: Dái, dái, esi mi en dhíái. Delghe to dhúan. Pé a hesi í o gwéla ti och apísa mi?

(Benghal: Good, good, I’m coming. Hold your piss. What is it that you want me to see?)

Gwirchan: Derchi insé. Esi in Lithau en hána.

(Gwirchan: Look at this. The Earth is breathing.)

 

names:

 

Gwirchan @ Songman (< Uirocantus “song-man”, Delamarre 2003, p. 321)

Benghal @ Powerwoman (< Banogalis “power-woman”, Delamarre 2003, p. 72)

 

  1. The verbal root/infinitive – the imperative

 

The verbal root or infinitive is the basic root form of the verb. It doesn’t have any prefixes or suffixes.

 

díái: to come

gwel: to want

 

The imperative (giving a command) is the same as the verbal root. It is said in a commanding tone.

 

díái insin! : come here!

 

There are seven different kinds of verbal roots, depending on their ending.

 

  1. a) ending on -n, -r or -l

 

men: to think

gar: to call

gwel: to want

 

  1. b) ending on a vowel + -i

 

díái: to go

clúi: to hear

 

  1. c) ending on a consonant + -i

 

réthi: to run

derchi: to look/to watch

sédhi: to sit

 

  1. d) ending on -a

 

spá: to say

ána: to breathe

 

  1. e) ending on –e

 

delghe: to hold

 

  1. f) ending on -o

 

ávó: to do

 

  1. g) ending on -s

 

ápis: to see

 

 

  1. The Present Form

 

The present form is made by giving the verbal root a suffix (a bit added at the end). This suffix or ending is –a.

 

  1. a) If the verbal root ends in -n, -r, -l or -s this ending –a is added at the end.

 

gwel: to want

> gwéla mi: I want

 

men: to think

> ména mi: I think

 

gar: to call

> gára mi: I call

 

ápis: to see

> apisa mi: I see

 

  1. b) If the verbal root ends in a vowel + -i the ending –a is added at the end.

 

díái: to come

> diáia mi: I come

 

clúi: to hear

> clúia mi: I hear

 

  1. c) If the verbal root ends in –a it doesn’t change.

 

spá: to say.

> spá mi: I say

 

  1. d) If the verbal root ends in a consonant + -i, -e or –o that –i, -e or –o is changed into an –a.

 

réthi: to run

> rétha mi: I run

 

delghe: to hold

> delgha mi: I hold

 

ávó: to do

> áva mi: I do

 

  1. The Ongoing Form

 

The ongoing form is made by using the preposition “en”. It is put in front of the verbal root. It causes an initial consonant mutation on the verbal root.

 

ána: to breathe

> esi in Lithau en hána: the Earth is breathing.

 

  1. The Simple Past Form

 

The simple past form is made by using the particle “ré”. It is put in front of the verbal root. It causes an initial consonant mutation on the verbal root.

 

clúi: to hear

> ré glúi mi: I heard

 

spá: to say

> ré ‘pá ti neveth: you said nothing

 

  1. The Completed Past Form

 

The completed past form is made by giving the verbal root a suffix (an ending).

 

  1. a) verbal roots on n, r, l, a, e, o, and i not including –thi and -dhi

 

For these verbal roots the ending is –thu.

 

men > menthu mi: I have thought

gar > garthu mi: I have called

gwel > gwelthu mi: I have wanted

spá > spathu mi: I have said

delghe > delghéthu mi: I have held

ávó > avóthu mi: I have done

derchi > derchíthu mi: I have looked

 

  1. b) verbal roots on –thi, -dhi and -s

 

For these verbal roots the ending –i is changed into –ú. This –ú receives the emphasis.

 

sédhi > sedhú mi: I have sat

réthi > rethú mi: I have run

ápis > apisú mi: I have seen

 

  1. The Simple Future Form

 

The simple future form is made by giving the verbal root a suffix (an ending).

 

  1. a) all verbal roots except verbal roots on -s

 

For these verbal roots the ending is –sí. The –í receives the mephasis.

 

men > mensí mi: I will think

gar > garsí mi: I will call

gwel > gwelsí mi: I will want

spá > spasí mi: I will speak

delghe > delghesí mi: I will hold

ávó > ávosí mi: I will do

derchi > derchisí mi: I will see

sédhi > sedhisí mi: I will sit

réthi > rethisí mi: I will run

 

  1. b) verbal roots on -s

 

For these verbal roots the ending is –í. The –í receives the emphasis.

 

ápis > apisí mi: I will see.

 

  1. The Conditional Future Form

 

The conditional future form is made by putting the particle “ré” in front of the simple future form. This particle “ré” causes initial consonant mutation on the verbal root.

 

men > ré wensí mi: I would think

spá > ré ‘pasí mi: I would say

derchi > ré dherchisí mi: I would look

ápis > ré hapisí mi: I would see

 

  1. The Completed Simple Past Form

 

The completed simple past form is made by putting the particle ‘ré” in front of the completed past form. This particle “ré” causes initial consonant mutation on the verbal root.

 

gar > ré gharthu mi: I had called

delghe > ré dhelghéthu mi: I had held

sedhi > ré shedhú mi: I had sat

 

  1. The Completed Simple Future Form

 

The completed simple future form is made by adding the ending –thu to the simple future form.

 

gwel > gwelsíthu mi: I will have wanted

ávó > ávosíthu mi: I will have done

réthi > rethisíthu mi: I will have run

 

  1. The Completed Conditional Future Form

 

The completed conditional form is made by putting the particle “ré” in front of the completed simple future form.

 

> ré chwelsithu mi: I would have wanted

> ré havosíthu mi: I would have done

> ré rhethisíthu mi: I would have run

 

  1. Ongoing Past, Future and Conditional Forms

 

The ongoing form can be put in all the forms by putting the verb “to be”in all the forms.

> bú mi en hána: I was breathing

> bí mi en hána: I will be breathing

> éthu mi en hána: I have been breathing

> biéthu mi en hána: I will have been breathing

> ré ví mi en hána: I would be breathing

> ré héthu mi en hána: I had been breathing

> ré viéthu mi en hána: I would have been breathing

 

  1. The “May” Form

 

The “may” form expresses a wish. It is made by putting the particle “o” (“that”) in front of the simple future form.

 

ápis: to see

> apisí ti: you will see

> och apisí ti: may you see

 

It can also be used with the completed future form.

 

> och apisíthu ti: may you have seen

 

  1. The “Let us” Form

 

The “let us” form indicates a command to a group of people including the speaker. It is made by using the imperative form (command) with the personal pronoun “ni”(we).

 

derchi: to look

> derchi!: look!

> derchi ni!: let us look!

 

  1. The Indirect Command Form

 

The indirect command form expresses a command indirectly. It is constructed like a subordinate clause with “o” (“that”).

 

gwéla ti: you want

apísa mi: I see

> gwéla ti och apísa mi: you want that I see (= you want me to see)

 

  1. The Impersonal Form

 

The impersonal form is made by adding the ending –or to the end of the verbal root. It means a verb acts without a subject in a general way.

 

men: to think

> menor: one thinks / it is thought

 

rinchi: to need

> rinchor: one needs / it is needed > “it is necessary”

 

The impersonal form can be combined with all the forms of the verbs.

 

> ré rhinchor: it was necessary

> rinchorthu: it has been necessary

> ré rhinchorthu: it had been necessary

> rinchorsí: it will be necessary

> rinchorsíthu: it will have been necessary

> ré rhinchorsí: it would be necessary

> ré rhinchorsíthu: it would have been necessary

> rinchor!: be necessary!/ let it be necessary

> o rinchorsí: may it be necessary

> gwéla mi o rinchor: I want it to be necessary

 

 

Excercises

 

Translate the following phrases. Use the verbs given below, as well as the ones learned in previous lessons. You can find the answers at the end of the lesson.

 

 

trughni: to snore

ausi: to listen

to shout: druchar

to fall: cóimi

to cry: duiar

to laugh: suiar

carni: to build

dicharni: to destroy

dwaéli: to fart

tái: to touch

croswi: to surf

depri: to eat

sóni: to sleep

to kiss: buswi

to feel: menthái

to walk: cáma

to climb: dres

to grow: mári

to celebrate: líthi

to happen: gwéri

 

Go there!:

Listen to me!:

I speak:

You say:

He is shouting:

She is snoring:

We fell:

You (pl.) sang:

They farted:

They touched:

I have built:

You have destroyed:

He will cry:

She will laugh:

We would see:

You (pl.) would hear:

They had surfed:

I had eaten:

You will have drunken:

He will have slept:

She would have kissed:

We would have felt:

You (pl.) will have been walking:

They would have been climbing:

May you have grown:

Let us celebrate!:

They want us to leave:

It would have happened:

 

 

Answers:

 

Go there!: ái insé!

Listen to me!: ausi adhim!

I speak: lavára mi

You say: spá ti

He is shouting: esi é en dhruchar

She is snoring: esi í en drughni

We fell: ré góimi ni

You (pl.) sang: ré gan sú

They farted: ré dhwaéli sí

They touched: ré wenthái sí

I have built: carníthu mi

You have destroyed: dicharníthu ti

He will cry: duiarsí é

She will laugh: suiarsí í

We would see: ré hapisí ni

You (pl.) would hear: ré glúisí sú

They had surfed: ré groswíthu sí

I had eaten: ré dhepríthu mi

You will have drunken: ivisíthu ti

He will have slept: sonisíthu é

She would have kissed: ré vuswíthu í

We would have felt: ré wentháisithu ni

You (pl.) will have been walking: biéthu sú en gáma

They would have been climbing: ré viéthu sí en dhres

May you have grown: o marsíthu ti

Let us celebrate!: líthi ni!

They want us to leave: gwéla sí o técha ni

It would have happened: ré chwerorsíthu

 

Menghavan 15: In Goghníth hOlédhach

 

Lesson 15: The Spatial System

 

In the fifteenth lesson you will learn how the spatial system works in Galáthach.

 

Lesson 15 conversation 4

Conversation

 

Below is a conversation between several people. One is a woman, Gwérudhumna. The others are four men of the Gaulish Coast Guard, Derchun, Bledhínu, Comprínu, Duvnach and Tarthu. Gaulish people are recorded as having been fond of speaking in riddles.

 

Gwérudhumna = wide-dark < Uerodumna

Tarthu = the dry one < Tartos

Bledhínu = wolf-like person < Bledinos

Comprínu = with-wood/tree-person < Comprinnos

Derchun = watcher < Dercunos

Duvnach = deep-like person < Dubnacos

Cunwór = seadog < Cunomori

 

Gwérudhumna: Di wath, mapáthé insé íth anel! Pé gaman a hesi sú?

(Gwerdhumna: Goodd day, boys there low below! How are you [pl.]?)

 

Derchun: Dí wath, Gwérudhumna insé ardhu uchel! Esi ni in dhái. Ach ti-súé?

(Derchun: Good day, Gwérudhumna there high above! We are well. And your-self?)

 

Gw: Né héthu mi chwer dhái diaman. A hesi sú gwó in halis-sin?

(Gw: I have never been better. Are you [pl.] under this cliff?)

 

Bledhínu: Esi ni. A hesi ti gwer in halis?

(Bledhínu: We are. Are you on the cliff?)

 

Gw: Esi mi.

(Gw: I am.)

 

Bl: Gwerthamich.

(Bl: Excellent.)

 

Gw: Gwéla mi díái aner a hápis sú.

(Gw: I want to come down to see you [pl.].)

 

Comprínu: Né dhíái insin aner! Esi in senthu ré dhruch. Gála ni gar uch adhith!

(Comprínu: Don’t come down here! The track is very bad. We can shout up to you!)

 

Gw: Math, peth nep o gwéla sú.

(Gw: Fine, whatever you [pl.] want.)

 

Duvnach: Duch, pé a chwéla ti, Gwérudhumna?

(Duvnach: So, what do you want, Gwérudhumna?)

 

Gw: Ré chwelsí mi pétha adhú ma hapisú sú mó garan’wir uchedh Tarthu.

(Gw: I would want to ask you [pl.] if you [pl.] have seen my superior boyfriend Tarthu.)

 

De: Á … apisú ni ché.

(De: Aah … we have seen him.)

 

Gw: Pé gaman a hesi é?

(Gw: How is he?)

 

De: Ne hesi é dáisam.

(De: He is not [the] best.)

 

Bl: Esi é méthamich méiu.

(Bl: He is a bit average.)

 

Co: Esi é més médhoch, in chwír.

(Co: He is quite bad, in truth.)

 

Du: Ré ghalsí ni spá och esi é gwer wés co wés, cotham.

(Du: We could say that he is worse than bad, even.)

 

De: Ména ni och esi ó ch’iachas anedh méiu, en vithwíras.

(De: We think that his health is a bit inferior, in reality.)

 

Bl: Bathwíor och esi é co hanamich co rhé ghalsí é bis.

(Bl: It appears that he is as poor as he could be.)

 

Co: Galvis mesam ó vith, a ghnía ti.

(Co: Maybe [the] worst of his life, you know.)

 

Gw: Né ghnía mi neveth! Esi sú en lhavar cachu adhim. Pémái a hesi é? Gwéla mi ápis iché nú in govíon!

(I don’t know anything! You’re speaking shit to me. Where is he? I want to see him now immediately!)

 

De: Esi é insé pel.

(De: He’s overthere.)

 

Cunwór: Úúúúúúúúúúúúúúúú ….

(Cunwór: Oooooooooooooooo …)

 

 

  1. Physical spatial aspect

 

The physical spatial aspect in Galáthach is expressed using a set of opposing values:

 

uch: up                     / aner: down

uchel: above, over    / anel: below, underneath

ardhu: high              / íth: low

gwer: on                    / gwó: under

 

Examples from the conversation above:

 

Di wath, mapáthé insé íth anel > Good day, boys there low below

Dí wath, Gwérudhumna insé ardhu uchel > Good day, Gwérudhumna there high above

A hesi sú gwó in halis-sin > Are you [pl.] under this cliff

A hesi ti gwer in halis > Are you on the cliff

Gwéla mi díái aner a hápis sú > I want to come down to see you [pl.]

Gála ni gar uch adhith > We can shout up to you

 

 

  1. Metaphorical adaptation of spatial values

 

  1. a) The spatial values given above are adapted to carry metaphorical meaning of quality:

 

uchedh: superior, better (< uch “up”)

anedh: inferior, worse (< ane- “down”)

 

Examples from the conversation above:

 

mó garan’wir uchedh > my superior boyfriend

esi ó ch’iachas anedh méiu > his health is a bit inferior

 

  1. b) Spatial notions are also used to construct a value system using the concept of “tam”, meaning “quality/class”. This combined with an- (< ane-), “low quality”; mé- (< médh-, “middle”) “middle quality”; and gwer- “on”, i.e. “on top quality”.

 

anamich: worst, bad, poor (quality)

méthamich: mediocre, ordinary, average (quality)

gwerthamich: best, good, excellent (quality)

 

Examples from the conversation above:

 

Gwerthamich < Excellent

Esi é méthamich méiu > He is a bit average

esi é co hanamich co rhé ghalsí é bis > he is as poor as he could be

 

 

  1. Comparitive value systems

 

The metaphorical use of the spatial values is combined with regular words for quality (good, bad etc.) to construct two parallel systems of value judgement.

 

  1. a) One system is regular. It uses the words good/bad in conjunction with the spatial value “gwer”, “on”, to construct the comparitive level and the suffix –am to construct the superlative level.

 

dái – gwer dhái– dáisam > good – better – best

mes – gwer wes – mesam > bad – worse – worst

 

Examples from the conversation above:

 

Esi ni in dhái > we are well (used with adverbial particle “in”)

Né héthu mi chwer dhái diaman > I have never been better (fem.)

Ne hesi é dáisam > he is not [the] best

esi é gwer wés co wés > he is worse than bad

Galvis mesam ó vith > maybe [the] worst of his life

 

  1. b) One system is irregular. It uses alternative words for good/bad in conjunction with spatial value terms to formulate the comparitive and superlative forms.

 

math –  uchedh   –  gwerthamich: fine       superior     excellent

druch – anedh –    anamich: bad       inferior    poor

 

Examples from the conversation above:

 

Dí wath > good day

mó garan’wir uchedh > my superior boyfriend

Gwerthamich > excellent

Esi in senthu ré dhruch > the track is very bad

esi ó ch’iachas anedh méiu > his health is a bit inferior

esi é co hanamich co rhé ghalsí é bis > he is as poor as he could be

 

 

  1. Conversational words

 

The conversation above gives some words that can be used in a conversational way to modify or temper statements.

 

médhoch: quite

cotham: even

en vithwíras: in reality

in govíon: immediately

in chwír: in truth [truly]

 

Examples from the conversation above:

 

Esi é més médhoch, in chwír > he is quite bad, in truth

Ré ghalsí ni spá och esi é gwer wés co wés, cotham > We could say that he is worse than bad, even

esi ó ch’iachas anedh méiu, en vithwíras > his health is a bit inferior, in reality

Gwéla mi ápis iché nú in govíon > I want to see him now immediately

 

 

Excercises:

 

Translate the following phrases using the vocabulary given. The answers can be found at the end of this lesson.

 

 

to climb: dres

tree: pren

to go: ái

cave: balu

waterfall: uchón

rocks: carché

source: anón

cliff: alis

mountain: brí

swamp: latha

crane: garan

river: avon

to run: rithi

ground (soil): ughr

beer: curu

wine: gwín

apple: aval

bread: barghu

meat: cich

axe: gwidhuv

sword: cládh

shovel: scothír

story: spáthl

dance: sulingen

music: canthl

lie: cóias

performance: gwothan

health: iachas

horse: ép

 

 

I climb up in a tree:

You go down into a cave:

There is a waterfall above the rocks:

There is a spring below the cliff:

The mountain is high:

The swamp is low:

The crane sits on the bull:

The river runs under the ground:

 

This beer is superior:

This wine is inferior:

 

This apple is good:

This bread is better:

This meat is [the] best:

 

This axe is bad:

This sword is worse:

This shovel is [the] worst:

 

That story is fine:

That dance is superior:

That music is excellent:

 

That lie is bad:

That performance is inferior:

The condition of that horse is poor:

 

 

Answers:

 

I climb up in a tree: drésa mi uch en bren

You go down into a cave: áia ti aner en valu

There is a waterfall above the rocks: esi uchón uchel in garché

There is a source below the cliff: esi anón anel in halis

The mountain is high: esi in vrí hardhu

The swamp is low: esi in lhatha híth

The crane sits on the bull: sédha in garan gwer in táru

The river runs under the ground: rítha in avon gwó in ughr

 

This beer is superior: esi in curu-sin uchedh

This wine is inferior: esi in chwín-sin hanedh

 

This apple is good: esi in haval-sin dhái

This bread is better: esi in barghu-sin gwer dhái

This meat is [the] best: esi in gich-sin dháisam

 

This axe is bad: esi in gwidhuv-sin més

This sword is worse: esi in gládh-sin gwer wés

This shovel is [the] worst: esi in ‘cothír-sin wesam

 

That story is fine: esi in ‘páthl-sé wath

That dance is superior: esi in sulingen-sé uchedh

That music is excellent: esi in ganthl-sé chwerthamich

 

That lie is bad: esi in góias-sé dhruch

That performance is inferior: esi in chwothan-sé hanedh

The health of that horse is poor: esi iachas in ép-sé hanamich

 

Menghavan 16: In Goghníth hAmanach

 

Lesson 16: The Temporal System

 

In the sixteenth lesson you will learn how the temporal system works in Galáthach.

 

Lesson 16 conversation

Conversation

 

A man, Arthu, is talking to a woman, Melina.

 

Arthu = The Bear < Artos

Melina = The Honey < Melina

 

 

 

A: Éi, esi didhúrach riem aman. Aman a chwéri canith, in chwerpenach.

M: Á, esi aman mó chwerpenachu.

A: A hesi í in vithwír?

M: Esi í. Dáma mó hempá adhith in gaman o cerdha í …

A: Suvis.

M: Diantha aman can shechóné, och áva sí minúthé, och áva sí óré.

A: Esi sé certh.

M: Né ghavisí mini sin éithr sim ór.

A: Iánu sath.

M: Esi dádhech ór en dhí, ach dádhech ór en nhóith, a hanétham a’n nóith’samálé.

A: In gerth.

M: Esi erédhl gwochon-pethr ór anwíthu “lathíu”.

A: Esi í.

M: Enelgha lathíu báréi, methin, médhi, óswédhi, nesnóith, ach médhnóith.

 

A: Iánu sath. Arwéra adhim in rhanalch in nóith. Ach ti?

M: Penarwéra adhim in dhí.

A: Apísa mi. Pé a havosí ti aváréi?

M: In peth samal o ré hávó mi díes ach cin dhíes.

A: Ach pé a vú sé?

M: Bí mi en dhiluthri mó shuchnusan u béné seríthu.

A: Echan dhinéan. Ach ós haváréi?

M: In shamal.

A: Certh.

M: Nú, áva séith nóith séithnóith.

A: In vithwír?

M: Ach esi in dá dí ós anwíthu in penséithnóith.

A: Á, trévíu lavára ti amí … pé a havosí ti in penséithnóith-sin?

M: Bí mi en lhauni mó chwolth en dhúan’ép ach duvr’wargh.

A: Certh.

M: Avóthu mi chi siní ach avosí mi chí athé sinóith.

 

A: Sulichach.

M: Duch, esi pethr séithnóith en on mís.

A: Esi.

M: Ach esi trí mís en on sonching.

A: A hesi?

 

M: Esi. Ach esi pethr sonching en on bledhn: gwíson, sam, meth, gíam.

 

A: Swausa í certh éth gwé anéth.

M: Ach litha ni gweráné chwerpenach tar in bledhn. Comíu penvledhné.

A: Esi sé certh! Ponch a hesi tó benvlédhn ach pé a havosí ti?

M: Bú í in séithnóith ós.

A: Á.

M: Auné nep ni-esi litháné trinóith ach dechnóith, comíu ri shán’suélé ach samal’nóithé.

A: In gerth! Pé a havosí ti ton?

M: Bí mi en shuling dherthol ér in ten …

 

A: Á! Nú lavára ni …

M: … can mó garáné geneth …

A: Mói!

M: … en lhoscríthi cládhé rhé háchwár …

A: A háva sú?

M: … ach suvióna ni saláthé en lhithalach.

A: Apísa mi.

M: Ton, esi in blédhné suchnusíthu en shéthlé …

A: Pé a hesi sí?

M: Esi sé e ghénu ithí a ghénu tó wapath cin.

 

A: Á, nú, gwer chwóchatha gnathálé …

M: Ach ton esi in blédhné cansóithú en haiúé.

 

A: Pé a hesi áiu?

M: Esi í gwochon-dech blédhn, gwé swech óchan amanar.

A: Certh.

M: Nú, áiu …

A: Áiu?

M: … esi sé in gerth in érédhl o rinchasí ti anéli aven galsí ti ádha to dhalam gwerim.

 

 

A: Hey, I’m interested in time. Spending time with you, specifically.

M: Ah yes, time is my specialty.

A: Is it really?

M: It is. Let me tell you how it works …

A: All right.

M: Time starts with seconds, which make up minutes, which make up hours.

A: That’s right.

M: Explaining this will only take half an hour.

A: Fair enough.

M: There are 12 hours in a day, and 12 hours in a night, at least at the equinoxes.

A: Exactly.

M: A whole 24 hour period is called a “day period”.

A: It is.

M: A day period consists of a dawn, a morning, a midday, an afternoon, an evening, and a midnight.

A: Fair enough. I particularly like the night. What about you?

M: I prefer the day.

A: I see. What are you doing tomorrow?

M: The same thing I did yesterday and the day before yesterday.

A: And what was that?

M: I will be cleaning my collection of severed heads.

A: Of course. And the day after tomorrow?

M: The same.

A: Right.

M: Now, seven days make up a week.

A: Really?

M: And the last two days are called the weekend.

A: Ah yes, since you mention it … what are you doing this weekend?

M: I’ll be washing my hair in horsepiss and lime.

A: Right.

M: I did it today and I’ll do it again tonight.

 

 

A: Charming.

M: So, there are four weeks in a month.

A: There are.

M: And there are three months in a season.

A: Is there?

M: There is. And there are four seasons in one year: spring, summer, autumn, winter.

A: Sounds about right.

M: And we celebrate special events throughout the year. Such as birthdays.

A: That’s right! When’s your birthday and what will you be doing?

M: It was last week.

A: Ah.

M: At times we have three-night and ten-night celebrations, such as at the solstices and equinoxes.

A: Exactly! What will you be doing then?

M: I will be dancing around the fire in the nude …

 

A: Ah! Now we’re talking …

M: … with all my girlfriends …

A: Great!

M: … wielding very sharp swords …

A: You do?

M: … and we ritually slice up sausages.

A: I see.

M: Then, the years are gathered in generations …

A: What are they?

M: That’s from your birth to the birth of your first child.

 

 

A: Ah, now, on the subject of babies …

M: And then the years are counted in ages.

 

A: What’s an age?

M: It is thirty years, or six calendar completions.

A: Right.

M: Now, an age …

A: Yes?

M: … that’s exactly how long you’re going to have to wait before you ever get your hands on me.

 

 

 

In the conversation above two people use all the terms relating to time in Galáthach. They are listed here. Some of the words are modern loans.

 

 

sechon: second

minuth: minute

pimdhech minuth: fifteen minutes, quarter of an hour

sim ór: half hour (< sim “half”, attested)

ór: hour

 

báréi: dawn (< proto-Celtic *ba:re:gom, loss of –om & –eg > éi cf. Lambert 2003, p. 43)

methin: morning (< Latin “matina”, cf. Br. mintin, C. metten, Ir. maidin)

médhi: midday (< medh “middle” + dí)

óswédhi: afternoon (< ós “after” + medh + dí)

nesnóith: evening (< nes “near, close to” + nóith

medhnóith: midnight (< medh + noith)

 

dí: day

siní: today

nóith: night

sinóith: tonight (by analogy with siní < sindiu > sindenocta > sinóith)

lathíu: period of 24 hours, daytime, day and night

 

aváréi: tomorrow (< a “to, at” + báréi)

ós haváréi: after tomorrow

díes: yesterday (< proto-Celtic *gdijes)

cin dhíes: before yesterday

 

penséithnóith: weekend (< pen “head” + séthnóith)

séithnóith: week (“seven-night”, by analogy with e.g. trinoctia)

mís: month

 

trinóith: three-night feast

dechnóith: ten-night feast

 

sam: summer

meth: autumn (“harvest” < *met- “to harvest)

gíam: winter

gwison: spring

 

sonching: season (period)

blédhn: year

penvlédhn: anniversary, birthday

 

séthl: generation

áiu: age

aman: time

 

Exercises

 

Use the words given above and the vocabulary learned so far to construct the following sentences. You can find your answers at the end of this lesson.

 

Notes:

 

* To say how old a person is the verb “to have” is used > I am twenty years old = I have twenty years.

 

* To indicate the time the number of hours is indicated > it is five o’clock = it is five hours.

 

 

Can you run a hundred metres in ten seconds?

No, it would take me five minutes.

Will you be here after fifteen minutes?

No, I will be gone for half an hour.

 

I will run for an hour.

She swims in the ocean at dawn.

He slept until ten o’clock of the morning.

We could eat at midday.

They like to sleep in the afternoon

Will you (pl.) tell stories this evening?

You danced until midnight.

 

Today is a beautiful day.

Tonight will also be a beautiful night.

He has not slept for a period of 24 hours.

 

Tomorrow you will be very tired.

After tomorrow you have to go to work.

She went to see her mother yesterday.

But her mother died the day before yesterday.

 

This weekend we will go to walk through the mountains.

Next week we will swim in the river.

This is the first month of summer.

 

We will dance in the nude for the three-night feast.

We will eat and drink without sleeping for the ten-night feast.

 

They worked hard in the autumn.

Last winter their feet froze.

Spring always makes her nose run.

 

It is a difficult season for her.

What year is this again?

Happy birthday to you, may you have many returns.

How old is that girl?

You are not allowed to ask, she will cut your head off.

 

The old people like to complain about the new generation.

They lived in an age of freedom.

Now it is a time of slavery.

 

 

Answers

 

 

Can you run a hundred metres in ten seconds? > A ghála ti réthi can methr en dhech sechon?

No, it would take me five minutes. > Né ghála mi, ré ghavisí í mi pimp minuth.

Will you be here after fifteen minutes? > A ví ti insin ós pimdhech minuth?

No, I will be gone for half an hour. > Né ví mi, bí mi áithu ri shim ór.

 

I will run for one hour. > Rethisí mi ri on ór.

She swims in the ocean at dawn. > Sná í en in mórwár a váréi.

He slept until ten o’clock of the morning. > Ré shóni é aven dech ór in methin.

We could eat at midday. > Ré ghalsí ni depri a wédhi.

They like to sleep in the afternoon. > Arwéra adhís sóni en in óswédhi.

Will you (pl.) tell stories this evening? > A hempasí sú spáthlé in nesnóith-sin?

You danced until midnight. > Ré shuling ti aven medhnóith.

 

Today is a beautiful day. > Esi siní dí dech.

Tonight will also be a fantastic night. > Bí sinóith nóith swapisóich cóéth.

I have not slept for a period of 24 hours. > Né shoníthu mi ri lhathíu.

 

Tomorrow you will be very tired. > Bí ti ré lhisc aváréi.

After tomorrow you have to go to work. > Ós haváréi rincha ti ái a gerdhi.

She went to see her mother yesterday. > Ré hái í a hápis ó máthir díes.

But her mother died the day before yesterday. > Éithr ré warwi ó máthir cin dhíes.

 

This weekend we will go to walk through the mountains. > In penséithnóith-sin áisí ni a gama tar in vríé.

Next week we will swim in the river. > In séitnóith conesam snásí ni en in avon.

This is the first month of summer. > Esi sin mís gin in sham.

 

We will dance in the nude for the three-night feast. > Sulingsí ni derthol ri drinóith.

We will eat and drink without sleeping for the ten-night feast. > Deprisí ach ivisí ni echan shóni ri dhechnóith.

 

They worked hard in the autumn. > Ré gerdhi sí en galeth en chwison.

Last winter their feet froze. > In ghíam hósim ré hoghri só draiéthé.

Spring always makes her nose run. > Áva in gwison réthi ó trughn aman hol.

 

It is a difficult season for her. > Esi í sonching guth richí.

What year is this again? > Pé vlédhn a hesi sin athé?

Happy birthday to you, may you have many returns. > Penvlédhn láen adhith, o ti-ví    athéchwertháné lháen hélu.

How old is that girl? > Pé háiu a hí-esi in gheneth-sé?

You are not allowed to ask, she will cut your head off. > Né shudhamor pétha ichí, bésí í tó ben.

 

The old people like to complain about the new generation. > Arwéra í a’n doné sen cothróia am in séthl nói.

They lived in an age of freedom. > Ré víthi sí en háiu rías.

Now it is a time of slavery. > Nú esi í aman caithan.

 

 

Menghavan 17: Cosán – Coviras – Rímé

 

Lesson 17: Comparison– Diminutive – Numbers

 

In the seventeenth lesson you will learn how the comparison, diminutive and numbers systems work in Galáthach.

 

Lesson 17 In Da Tei

 

 

Trélaváru / Translation:

 

 

“My house is more beautiful than yours.”

 

“It is not. My house is bigger than yours.”

 

“It is. But your house is shit.”

 

 

 

Conversation

 

This is a dialogue between two men, Anerghu (The Very Red One) and Bochu (The Mouth).

 

Anerghu: Esi mó déi téi tech.

A: My house is a beautiful house.

 

Bochu: Esi í, in chwír. Éithr esi mó déi imí gwer dech.

B: Yes, it is. But my house [of-me] is more beautiful.

 

A: Né hesi, esi tó déi co dech co in ími, éithr né chwer dech.

A: No, your house is as beautiful as mine [the of-me], but not more beautiful.

 

B: Mi-esi comóinan, esi ti ancherth. Esi mó déi imí in téi techam.

B: I’m sorry, you are wrong. My house is the most beautiful house.

 

A: Ti-esi tó ben en in nemúé. Né hesi tó déi téi bithwír cotham, esi í in hónach téial.

A: You are deluded [your head is in the clouds]. Your house is not even a real house, it’s only a shack [houselet].

 

B: Bú mó déi in téi cin o bú carníthu.

B: My house was the first house that was built.

 

A: Galsí í bis certh o bú mó déi in téi cíal o bú carníthu, éithr esi í gwer dhái élu co in ithí.

A: My house might have been the second house that was built, but it is much better than yours [the of-you].

 

B: Éithr carnisí mi téi tríthu, ach bí í gwer dhái athé.

B: But I will build a third house, and it will be better again.

 

A: Surathu adhith. Cansóithisí mi aven dech, ach ton anthasí mi in colaváru duchwís sin ach techisí mi. On, dá, trí …

A: Good luck. I will count to ten, and then I will finish this stupid conversation and walk away. One, two, three, …

 

B: Ton gwerthisí mi in téié pethuar ach pimpeth en dhuné.

B: Then the fourth and fifth houses I will turn into fortresses.

 

A: … pethr, pimp, swech … [ádha é ó visé en ó dhachlus]

A: … four, five, six … [puts his fingers in his ears]

 

B: Ton, bí in téié swechweth, séithweth ach óithweth bóthéié ri mó gwochon-pimp ép …

B: Then the sixth, seventh and eighth houses will be stables for my twenty-five horses …

 

A: … séith, óith …

A: … seven, eight …

 

B: … en in téi nameth delghesí mi mo dachwochon-tridhech cun sonithi …

B: … in the nineth house I will keep my fifty-three hunting dogs …

 

A: … ná …

A: … nine …

 

B: … ach bí in téi dechweth téi’churu, pémái delghesí mi mó trichwochon-pimdhech tun u guru.

B: … and the tenth house will be a pub, where I will keep my seventy-five barrels of beer.

 

A: Á! Pérí né a ‘páthu ti sé in govíon. Ái ni a ghávi curu! Tó chwerthan a dioprithi!

A: Ah! Why didn’t you say that immediately! Let’s go for a beer! Your turn to pay!

 

 

Anerghu < Andergus, “the very red one”, attested.

Bochu < Bocco, “the mouth”, attested.

 

 

  1. Comparison

 

There are three steps of comparison in Galáthach.

 

  1. a) one thing is as good as another thing

 

To express this the word “co”, meaning “as, like, same, similar” is used two times. “Co” causes Initial Consonant Mutation.

 

tech: beautiful

canech: gold

> esi in téi co dech co ganech: the house is as beautiful as gold

 

áchu: fast

lócheth: lightning

> esi in ép co háchu co lhócheth: the horse is as fast as lightning

 

 

  1. b) one thing is better than another thing

 

To express this the word “gwer”, meaning “on, over” is used. It causes ICM. It can be used by itself, without reference to other things.

 

esi in téi-sin gwer dech: this house is more beautiful.

esi in ép-sin gwer háchu: this horse is faster

 

It can also be used in combination with the word “co” to refer to other things.

 

esi in téi-sin gwer dech co ganech: this house is more beautiful than gold

esi in ép-sin gwer hachu co lhócheth: this horse is faster than lightning.

 

 

  1. c) a thing is the best

 

To express this the suffix –am is used.

 

esi in téi-sin techam: this house is most beautiful. [this house is the most beautiful one]

esi in ép-sin achúam: this horse is fastest. [this horse is the fastest one]

 

 

This system is also used in the comparitive value system described in lesson 15:

 

dái – gwer dhái– dáisam > good – better – best

mes – gwer wes – mesam > bad – worse – worst

 

 

Examples from the conversation above:

 

  1. Éithr esi mó déi imí gwer dech: but my house [of-me] is more beautiful.

 

> in this sentence the word “imí”, meaning “of-me”, “mine”, is added to give emphasis to the statement.

 

  1. Né hesi, esi tó déi co dech co in ími: No, your house is as beautiful as mine.

 

> in this sentence the phrase “né hesi”, meaning “[it] is not” is used to say “no”.

> the phrase “in imí”, meaning “the of-me” is used to say “mine”. It is used to refer to a thing without repeating it. It is the equivalent of English “mine”and French “le mien”.

 

  1. Esi mó déi imí in téi techam: my house is the most beautiful house.

 

> in this sentence the phrase “in téi techam” means “the most beautiful house. The word “techam”, meaning “most beautiful”, is an adjective and therefore follows the noun it says something about.

 

 

  1. Diminutive

 

The diminutive in Galáthach is formed with the suffix –al.

 

Example from the conversation above:

 

Né hesi tó déi téi bithwír cotham, esi í in hónach téial: your house is not even a real house, it is only a shack.

 

téi: house

> téial: shack [little house]

 

It is often used for words that describe a “smaller version” of something:

 

ép: horse

> épal: foal

 

gnath: child

> gnathal: baby

 

 

  1. Numbers

 

  1. a) cardinal numbers

 

The cardinal numbers of Galáthach are listed throughout the conversation above. A person counts to ten:

 

> on,   dá,   trí      pethr, pimp, swech, séith, óith,    ná,    dech

one, two, three, four,  five,   six,      seven, eight, nine, ten

 

The numbers from one to twenty form the basis for the formation of all other numbers.

 

> onech, dádhech, trídhech, pethrdhech, pimdhech,

eleven, twelve,   thirteen,  fourteen,     fifteen

 

> swechdhech, séidhech,   óidhech, nádhech,  gwochon

sisteen,          seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty

 

After twenty the numbering starts again:

 

> gwochon-on, gwochon-dá, gwochon-trí,  gwochon-pethr, gwochon-pimp

twenty-one,   twenty-two,   twenty-three, twenty-four,       twenty-five

 

> gwochon-swech, gwochon-séith, gwochon-óith, gwochon-ná, gwochon-dech

twenty-six,           twenty-seven,   twenty-eight,   twenty-nine,  thirty.

 

The word thirty is made up of twenty + ten: gwochon-dech [twenty-ten].

 

The numbers from thirty to forty are made by combining twenty with the numbers eleven to nineteen:

 

> gwochon-onech, gwochon-dádhech, gwochon-tridhech, gwochon-pethrdech, gwochon-pimdhech

thirty-one,           thirty-two,               thirty-four,             thirty-four,                thirty-five

 

and so on.

 

The number forty is made up of the number two + twenty: dáchwochon [two-twenty].

 

Then the pattern starts again. The number fifty is two + twenty + ten: dachwochon-dech [two-twenty-ten].

 

The numbers from fifty to sixty are made by combining the numbers two-twenty with the numbers eleven to nineteen:

 

> dáchwochon-onech, dáchochon-dadhech, dáchochon-trídhech …

fifty-one,                   fifty-two,                   fifty-three

[two-twenty-eleven,   two-twenty-twelve,  two-twenty-thirteen …]

 

The number sixty is made up of the number three + twenty: trichwochon.

 

Then the pattern starts again.

 

The number forty is made up of the number four + twenty: pethrchwochon

 

Then the pattern starts again.

 

The number one hundred is “can”.

 

The number one thousand is “mil”.

 

 

  1. b) ordinal numbers

 

The ordinal numbers are listed throughout the conversation above. The ordinal numbers one to five (first to fifth) are irregular.

 

cin: first

cíal: second

tríthu: third

pethúar: fourth

pimpeth: fifth

 

All other ordinal numbers except ones ending on “ nine” are formed regularly by adding the suffix “–weth” to the cardinal number.

 

swechweth: sixth

séithweth: seventh

óithweth: eighth

dechweth: tenth

onechweth: eleventh

dadhechweth: twelfth

pimdhechweth: fifteenth

swechdhechweth: sixteenth

nádhechweth: nineteenth

gwochonweth: twentieth

dachwochonweth: fortieth

trichwochonweth: sixtieth

pethrchwochonweth: eightieth

canweth: hundredth

milweth: thousandth

 

Ordinal numbers ending on “nine” are formed by adding the suffix “-meth” to the cardinal number.

 

námeth: nineth

gwochon-námeth: twenty-nineth

dachwochon-námeth: forty-nineth

trichwochon-námeth: sixty-nineth

 

 

Exercises

 

 

Translate the following phrases. You can find the answers at the end of the lesson.

 

 

téi: house

ép: horse

brí: mountain

moch: pig

depri: to eat

bargh: haystack

mórchun: dolphin

caur’wór: whale

tráieth: beach

cingeth: warrior

bathi: to fight

derthol: naked

drúidh: druid

céth: forest

nóiv: sacred

dí: day

ós: after

sam: summer

sán’súel: solstice

gwin: white

táru: bull

averthwi: to sacrifice

 

 

The first house is bigger than the second house.

The third horse is as fast as the fourth horse.

The fifth mountain is the highest one.

 

The seven little pigs have eaten fourteen haystacks.

The twenty-three little dolphins jumped out of the water.

There are thirty-one little whales dead on the beach.

 

The forty-eighth warrior was fighting naked. [*attention: naked is here used as an adverb]

There were seventy-five druids in the sacred forest.

On the eighty-nineth day after the summer solstice the little white bull was sacrificed.

 

 

Answers

 

Esi in téi cin gwer wár co’n téi cíal.

Esi in ép tríthu co háchu co in ép pethúar.

Esi in vrí pimpeth hardhúam.

 

Depríthu in séith mochal pethrdhech bargh.

Ré shuling in gwochon-trí mórchunal e in duvr.

Esi gwochon-onech caur’wóral marus gwer in dráith.

 

Bú in dachwochon-óithweth cingeth en vathi in dherthol.

Bú trichwochon-pimdhech drúidh en in céth nóiv.

A’n dhí pethrchwochon-nameth ós in shán’súel sam bú averthwíthu in tarúal gwin.

 

Menghavan 18: 

 

Lesson 18: Word Formation

 

 

In the eighteenth lesson you will learn how the word formation system works in Galáthach.

 

Menghavan 18 Colaváru 3

 

Colaváru – Trélaváru / Conversation – Translation

 

This is a conversation between a queen (rían) and a warrior (cingeth).

 

 

Rían: Duch … ré dhithéchi ti sírach ri’n samu …

(Queen: So … you turned up late for the meeting …)

Cingeth: Ré dhithéchi mi.

(Warrior: I did.)

R: … ach a hávó tanch ré brítha ti náthu’mólath ri mó dhiruch en in wái-sin, ach ré gan ti chí adhim en rhéthi achantha mó hesedh …

(Q: … and to make up for it you composed a praise poem in my honour on the spot and sang it to me while you ran next to my chariot …)

C: Ré gan mi en rhéthi.

(W: I did)

R: … ach ton a dhichéni mó chwesunan ré rhódhi mi ti bulgh u ganech …

(Q: … and then to show my appreciation I gave you a bag of gold …)

C: Ré rhódhi ti chí.

(W: You did.)

R: … ach esi ti láen can in bulgh u ganech sé?

(Q: … and are you happy with that bag of gold?)

C: Esi mi, bráthu ré hélu.

(W: I am, thanks very much.)

R: … duch, péri a hesi ti en rhéthi achantha mó hesedh tráiu?

(Q: … so why are you still running along next to my chariot?)

C: Esi mó ghran ghlíthu en in roth.

(W: My beard is stuck in the wheel.)

 

  1. Combining two words (compound words)

 

Two separate words can be combined to make a new word. They are connected with an apostrophe, and the first consonant of the second word undergoes a word-internal mutation. These mutations are different from the initial consonant mutations. They only affect t, c, b, d, g, m and gw. P, n, r, l, s and vowels are unaffected. These consonants change as follows:

 

t > th

c > ch

b > v

d > dh

g > gh after consonant, i after vowel

m > w after consonant, m after vowel (no change)

gw > chw

 

The first word is the main word (head word) and the second word is the qualifier word, saying something about the character, nature or quality of the first word.

 

The conversation above uses the compound word “náthu’mólath”.

 

náthu: poem

mólath: praise

> náthu’mólath: praise-poem

 

There is no change to the initial m of mólath because náthu ends in a vowel.

 

Other examples are:

 

téi: house

curu: beer

> téi’churu: pub (“beer-house”)

 

march: horse

cáthu: battle

> march’cháthu: battle-horse

 

carnu: horn

táru: bull

carnu’tháru: bull-horn

 

 

  1. Use of prefixes (a word or part of a word attached to the front of another word)

 

Prefixes can be used in combination with nouns or verbs to make new words. They are listed with their meanings below.

 

su-: good

du-: bad

di-: un-, the opposite or negation of something, used for verbs and nouns

athé-: again, repetition of something

an-: un-, the opposite or negation of something, used for adjectives

ané-: very, the intensification of something

 

The conversation above uses the following:

 

dithechi: to arrive

> di- “the opposite of” + techi “to depart” > opposite-of-departing = arriving

 

diruch: honour

> di- “the opposite of” + ruch “shame” > opposite-of-shame = honour

 

Other examples are:

 

swáel

> su- + áel > good-wind = welcome (the –u- of su- becomes –w- before a vowel)

suchwís

> su- + gwís > good-wise = clever

 

dwáiedh

> du- + áiedh > bad-face = ugly (the –u- of du- becomes –w- before a vowel)

duchwís

> du- + gwís > bad-wise = stupid

 

athémen

> athé- + men > again-think = to rethink

athápis

> athé- + ápis > again-see = to see again (the é of athé is dropped before a vowel)

 

anchuth

> an- + cuth > un-difficult = easy

ancherth

> an- + certh > un-right = wrong

 

anélonchi

> ané- + lonchi > very-swallow = to consume

anémár

> ané + már > very-big = huge

 

 

  1. Use of suffixes(words or part of words attached to the end of words)

 

There are several suffixes that can be used to create new words out of other words. The conversation above shows the word “sírach”.

 

a) The suffix –ach makes a word into an adjective or derives another adjective from an existing one. It translates as “-like”.

 

caran: friend

> caranach: friendly

 

sír: long

> sír + -ach > long-like > late

 

b) The suffix –as makes a noun out of an adjective.

 

sír: long

> síras: length

sírach: late

> sírachas: lateness

 

c) The suffix –lói makes a collective out of a noun.

 

don: person, human being

> donlói: humanity (all people)

 

gwep: word

> gweplói: vocabulary

 

d) The suffix –íu creates a general abstract concept from a concrete specific noun.

 

caran: friend

> caraníu: friendship

 

gwas: servant

> gwasíu: servitude

 

e) The suffix –widh creates a noun which indicates a person who studies and knows about a discipline or science.

 

d[é]ru: oak

> *derúwidh > drúidh: person who studies and knows about oaks

 

bith: life

> bithwidh: biologist = person who studies and knows about life

 

anath: soul, psyche

> anathwidh > psychologist = person who studies and knows about the soul or psyche

 

This can be combined with the suffix –íu given above to construct an abstract noun describing a discipline or science.

 

anath + widh + íu > anathwidhíu: psychology

 

bith + widh + íu > bithwidhíu: biology

 

f) The suffix –thói creates an adjective with a quality of ability.

 

ívi: to drink

> ivíthói: drinkable

 

cnughni: to read

> cnughníthói: legible (“readable”)

 

This can be combined with the suffix –as given above to construct an abstract noun describing an ability.

 

ívi + thói + as > ivithóias: drinkability

 

cnughni + thói + as > cnughnithóias: legibility (“readability”)

 

g) The suffix –áith creates a noun which describes the skill, art, practice, and application of knowledge in a given field, as well as its abstract concept. It is the equivalent of the English suffixes –ry as well as –ism.

 

céth: forest

> cétáith: forestry (the art and practice of looking after forests)

 

gwirthói: archer

> gwirthóiáith: archery (the art and practice of shooting bows and arrows)

 

trúinan: delivery of babies

> trúinanáith: midwifery (the art and practice of delivering babies)

 

cerdhach: professional

> cerdhacháith: professionalism (the art and practice of being professional)

 

lanach: pagan

> lanacháith: paganism (the art and practice of being pagan)

 

penwénu: ideal

penwenúáith: idealism (the art and practice of being idealistic)

 

 

  1. Use of prepositions as prefixes

 

Prepositions (words that indicate a position or a movement) can be added to the front of other words.

 

The conversation above shows the word “achantha”.

 

cantha: side

a: to, towards, at, by

> a + cantha > achantha: besides, by the side

 

gar: to call

ar: in front of

> ar + gar > arghar: to present

 

tái: to touch

am: around

> am + tái > amthái: to wrap

 

 

  1. Words derived from verbs

 

There is a specific and systematical way of constructing words based on verbs. Each class of verbs constructs these words in their own way.

 

Each verb gives at least

 

a) a verbal noun or infinitive: the root form of the verb

 

b) a word that describes someone who does the action of the verb, using the suffixes –íath, -eth and -il

 

c) a word that describes the abstract concept of the verb, using the suffixes –u, -an, -en, -on, -na, -l and –thl

 

The conversation above shows the word gwesunan, which means “appreciation”. This is derived from the verb gwesuni “to appreciate”.

 

The verb gwesuni is itself derived from the word gwésu “ valuable” + the suffix –ni, which can be used to construct a verb from a word that ends in a vowel.

 

gwésu: valuable

> gwesúni: to appreciate

> gwesuníath: “appreciator”, someone who appreciates

> gwesunan: appreciation

 

The conversation above also gives other verbs. They are listed here with their derivatives.

 

dithéchi: to arrive

dithechíath: arriver

dithechna: arrival

 

ávó: to do, to make

avíath: do-er, maker

avan: deed

 

prithi: to compose

prithíath: composer

prithan: composition

 

can: to sing

caníath: singer

cánu: song

 

réthi: to run

rethíath: runner

rethan: run

 

dichéni: to show

dicheniath: show-er, person who shows

dichenan: show

 

ródhi: to give

rodhíath: giver

ródhl: gift

 

glí: to stick

glíath: sticker

glíon: obstruction

 

 

The system for derivation of words from the different verb classes is given below.

 

 

verbal noun / infinitive

 

agentive form / person who does it abstract noun
verbs on -n, -r, -l, -m

 

men: to think

gar: to call

gwel: to want

dam: to endure

-íath

 

meníath: thinker

garíath: caller

gwelíath: wanter

damíath: endurer

-u

 

ménu: thought

gáru: call

gwélu: will(power)

dámu: endurance

verbs on –s, -thi, -vi, -ó

 

ápis: to see

rethi: to run

gavi: to take

ávó: to do

-íath

 

apisíath: see-er

rethíath: runner

gavíath: taker

ávíath: doer

-an

 

apísan: sight

rethan: run

gavan: take, taking

ávan: deed

verbs on –Vowel+i

 

anéi: to protect

-íath

 

anéiath: protector

-thl

 

anéithl: protection

verbs on –dhi

 

sédhi: to sit

-íath

 

sedhíath: sitter

-l

 

sedhl: seat

verbs on –chi

 

tonchi: to swear

-íath

 

tonchíath: swearer

-na

 

tonchna: oath, pledge

verbs on –ghe

 

orghe: to murder

-eth

 

orgheth: murderer

-en

 

orghen: murder

verbs on –pi

 

popi: to cook

-il

 

popil: cook

-an

 

popan: cooking

verbs on –a, noun attested

 

cára: to love

-áiath

 

caráiath: lover

-ath

 

cárath: love

verbs on –a, noun not att.

 

pétha: to ask

-áiath

 

petháiath: asker

-an

 

pethan: question

verbs on mono syllabic -i

 

gní: to know

-íath

 

gníath: knower

-on

 

gníon: knowledge

verbs on -wi

 

samwi: to meet, convene

-wíath

 

samwíath: convener

-wían

 

samwían: convention

 

 

  1. Verbs derived from other words

 

Verbs can be derived from nouns and from adjectives. These can be turned into verbs by the adding of the suffixes –i, -e, ni and -a. –a is only used very rarely.

 

a) The conversation above has the word sámu “meeting”.

 

This noun has a verb derived from it as follows:

 

sámu + -i > samui > samwi: to meet, to convene

 

b) The conversation above has the word bulgh “bag”.

 

If a word ends on –gh to make a verb out of it the ending –e is used.

 

bulgh + e > bulghe: to bag

 

c) The conversation above has the verb gwesúni “to appreciate”.

 

This is derived from the adjective gwesu “valuable”

 

> gwésu + -ni > gwesúni: to appreciate

 

d) Use of the suffix –a to make a verb:

 

> cathéi: projectile

> cátha: to throw

 

Excercises

 

Translate the following sentences. It’s a conversation between a boy and a girl. It illustrates the ritual of courtship in traditional Gaulish society. Use the words given throughout the lesson and the ones listed below. The answers can be found at the end of the lesson.

 

description: olchravan

picture: suvrich

zero: nev

to study: gnisái

au chwáitham: in spite of

to suffer from: pantha e

to sit down: sédhi

chair: sesa

proposal: arádhan

to put: ádha

throat: ráiman

to hope: gwómen

certainly: in shucherth

three: trí

times: aun

thirty: gwochon-dech

year: blédhn

 

 

 

B: I want to go to the pub.

 

G: Do you want to drink beer from a bull-horn?

 

B: I will do that when we arrive there.

 

G: Do you think that will be a clever thing to do?

 

B: I think not doing it would be stupid.

 

G: I want to consume lots of beer.

 

B: Do you think you would like to re-think that?

 

G: I don’t. It will be easy.

 

B: Drinking beer will be a welcome thing to do.

 

G: It will be. I need to drink a lot more beer, you’re still ugly.

 

B: Do you think the beer will be drinkable?

 

G: I’d like to read the description, but the picture has got zero legibility.

 

B: You have got a great vocabulary.

 

G: I do. It’s because I’m a psychologist.

 

B: I study biology myself.

 

G: Is that why [is it for that] you are so friendly?

 

B: It is, in spite of your lateness.

 

G: I can see you don’t suffer from servitude.

 

B: That’s right, I don’t. That’s because I’m a beer drinker with professionalism.

 

G: Is that why you just sat down next to your chair?

 

B: I want to present you with [present to you] a proposal.

 

G: What is it?

 

B: First I want to wrap my arms around you.

 

G: Really.

 

B: Then I will sing for you.

 

G: Then I will run from you.

 

B: But I’m a very good singer!

 

G: And I’m a better runner.

 

B: But I want to give you the gift of my song.

 

G: And I will give you the obstruction of my run.

 

B: What if [what about] I put a hold on you?

 

G: Then I will be the holder of your throat.

 

B: I see.

 

G: I certainly hope you do.

 

B: Would you like to meet again?

 

G: Not in three times thirty years.

 

 

 

Answers

 

B: I want to go to the pub. > Gwéla mi ái a’n téi’churu.

 

G: Do you want to drink beer from a bull-horn? > A chwéla ti ívi curu e garnu’tháru?

 

B: I will do that when we arrive there. > Avosí mi sé ponch dithécha ni insé.

 

G: Do you think that will be a clever thing to do? > A wéna ti o bí sé peth suchwís a hávó?

 

B: I think not doing it would be stupid. > Ména mi o ré ví í duchwís né hávó ichí.

 

G: I want to consume lots of beer. > Gwéla mi anélonchi curu élu.

 

B: Do you think you would like to re-think that? > A wéna ti o ré chwelsí ti athémen sé?

 

G: I don’t. It will be easy. > Né wéna mi. Bí í anchuth.

 

B: Drinking beer will be a welcome thing to do. > Bí ívi curu peth swáel a hávó.

 

G: It will be. I need to drink a lot more beer, you’re still ugly. > Bí í. Rincha mi ívi curu éth élu, esi ti dwáiedh tráiu.

 

B: Do you think the beer will be drinkable? > A wéna ti o bí in curu ivíthói?

 

G: I’d like to read the description, but the picture has got zero legibility. > Ré chwelsí mi cnughní in holchravan, éithr in shuvrich í-esi nev cnughithóias.

 

B: You have got a great vocabulary. > Ti-esi gweplói mói.

 

G: I do. It’s because I’m a psychologist. > Mi-esi. Esi í riveth esi mi anathwidh.

 

B: I study biology myself. > Gnisáia mi bithwidhíu mi-súé.

 

G: Is that why [is it for that] you are so friendly? > A hesi í ri shé och esi ti co garanach?

 

B: It is, in spite of your lateness. > Esi í, au chwaitham tó shirachas.

 

G: I can see you don’t suffer from servitude. > Gála mi ápis o né bantha ti e chwasíu.

 

B: That’s right, I don’t. That’s because I’m a beer drinker with professionalism. > Esi í certh, né bantha mi. Esí sé riveth esi mi ivíath curu can gerdhacháith.

 

G: Is that why [is it for that] you just sat down next to your chair? > A hesi í ri shé o ré shédhi ti achantha tó shesa ré nhú?

 

B: Hmf. I want to present you with [present to you] a proposal. > Hmf. Gwéla mi arghar adhith arádhan.

 

G: What is it? > Pé a hesi í?

 

B: First I want to wrap my arms around you. > In gin gwéla mi amthái mó dhadhos amith.

 

G: Really. > In chwír.

 

B: Then I will sing for you. > Ton cansí mi rieth.

 

G: Then I will run from you. > Ton rethisí mi au ti.

 

B: But I’m a very good singer! > Éithr esi mi caníath ré dhái!

 

G: And I’m a better runner. > Ach esi mi rethíath gwer dhái.

 

B: But I want to give you the gift of my song. > Éithr gwéla mi ródhi adhith ródhl mó gánu.

 

G: And I will give you the obstruction of my run. > Ach rodhisí mi adhith glíon mó rhethan.

 

B: What if [what about] I put a hold on you? > Pé am a hádha mi delghen gwerith?

 

G: Then I will be the holder of your throat. > Ton bí mi delgheth to rháiman.

 

B: I see. > Apísa mi.

 

G: I certainly hope you do [you see]. > Gwóména mi in shucherth och apísa ti.

 

B: Would you like to meet again? > A rhé chwelsí ti samwi athé?

 

G: Not in three times thirty years. > Né en drí aun gwochon-dech blédhn.

 

Menghavan 19: Ausédhlé

 

Lesson 19: Expressions

 

In the nineteenth lesson you will learn about expressions that can be used in Galáthach.

 

collage Lesson 19 final

 

 

Colaváru – Trélaváru / Conversation – Translation

 

 

Here is a conversation between Tascúan, a man, and Iurcha, a woman. Iurcha is about to walk over a trench of burning coals on her bare feet when Tascúan arrives and starts talking to her.

 

 

Tascuan: Methin dhái, pé gaman a hesi ti?

(Tascúan: Good morning, how are you?)

 

Iurcha: Nesnóith dái, gwéla ti spá. Esi mi wath, pé gaman a hesi ti ti-súé?

(Iurcha: Good evening, you mean. I am fine, how are you yourself?)

T: Né dhruch, bráthu. A ghnía ti och esi ti en shuling gwer hách in dolen insé?

(T: Not bad, thanks. Do you know that you are dancing on the edge of the blade there?)

 

I: Esi mi echanal en glé in vrí éithra in camu’thír.

(I: I am only pushing the mountain beyond the horizon.)

 

T: Né a wéna ti och esi ti en rhéthi ós ‘cáthé?

(T: Don’t you think that you are running after shadows?)

 

I: Ména mi och esi ti en dhwáni en in médu. Péri né a gonechughra ti ach ródhi adhim tanch?

(I: I think that you are pissing in the mead. Why don’t you fuck off and leave me alone?)

 

T: Esi ti rhé vurwár.

(T: You are very rude.)

 

I: Ach esi ti en vedhóli imí.

(I: And you are annoying me.)

 

T: Dái, athapisí mi ti gwer shírach, duch.

(T: Well, I’ll see you later then.)

 

I: Né chwóména mi.

(I: I hope not.)

 

 

Tascúan: Badger-killer (< Tascouanus, attested)

Iurcha: Roe Deer (< Iurca, attested)

 

 

Idiomatic Expressions (used in the conversation and other)

 

 

suling gwer hách in dolen: to dance on the edge of the blade

> to take a high risk

 

clé in vrí éithra in camu’thír: to push the mountain beyond the horizon

> to attempt the impossible

 

réthi ós ‘cáthé: to run after shadows

> to believe something wrong

 

dwáni en in médhu: to piss in the mead

> to spoil the fun

 

conechughri: to fuck off

ródhi adhim tanch: give me peace > leave me alone

> dáma mó honachas: accept my aloneness: leave me alone

> lái mi ónach: leave me alone

 

 

bedhóli don nep : to annoy someone

> bedhol: a burr (a prickly plant seedhead that attches itself to clothing, hair and fur, wraps

itself into it and is very difficult to remove)

 

esi tó dhéné gwer mó drughn: your teeth are on my nose

> you’re very rude

 

esi ti en ghlí bedhólé gwerim: you’re sticking burrs on me

> you’re annoying me

 

esi ti camath tar dhuvedhólé: you’re a walk through thistles

> you are a pain in the arse

 

ái a dhauni tó dhathráieth: go burn your feet

> go away

 

ponch esi in wísa gwer desach co in súel: when the moon is warmer than the sun

> never

 

aven turcha in moch: until the pig grunts

> until next time, see you later

 

trévíu brúia in vó en ó lan rétha in ép ríu: while the cow bellows in its paddock the horse

runs free

> some people making noise, i.e. complaining about something, does not prevent other people from doing what they want. > “while wankers winge we do what we want.”

 

 

Expressions of everyday courtesy and use

 

 

dí wath: goodday

methin dhái: good morning

óswédhí dhái: good afternoon

nesnoith dái: good evening

noith dái: good night

 

bráthu: thanks

> bráthu adhith: thank you (thanks to you)

> bráthu adhú: thank you (pl.) (thanks to you pl.)

 

ma harwéra í ti: please (if it pleases you)

ma harwéra í sú: please (if it pleases you pl.)

 

dái: good

ré dhái: very good

> all right, okay

duch: so

 

pé gaman a hesi ti: how are you (lit. “what way are you”)

> esi mi math: I am fine (male)

> esi mi wath: I am fine (female)

> esi mi dái: I am good (male)

> esi mi dhái: I am good (female)

> né dhruch: not bad

> esi mi in dhái: I am well (with adverbial particle “in”)

> mi cóéth: me too, me as well

 

athapisí mi ti gwer shírach: I will see you later

> gwer shirach: later (“more late”)

> a chwer shírach: to later

> a chwer: to more

> aven gwer shírach: until later

>.aven gwer: until more

> ápis ithí: seeing you

> aven ápis: until seeing

> aven athápis: until seeing again

> athápis: seeing again

> aven in conesam: until the next one

>.aven in íon conesam: until the next time

> íon conesam: next time

> a’n íon conesam: to next time

 

iachas: wellbeing/ health

> iachas dhái: good health > cheers, drinking toast

slánas: health

> slánas: health > goodbye

swáel: good wind > welcome

 

nep: any, some, neither

> né háva í dáias nep: it doesn’t do any good

> esi duvr nep en in ban: there is some water in the cup

> né hesi í on nep al: it is neither one or the other

 

réithu: right, law, entitlement

> mi-esi in réithu: I have the right

 

certh: right, correct

> esi mi certh: I am right (also “mi-esi gwíroth”)

ancherth: wrong

> esi mi ancherth: I am wrong

 

sóru: fault

> mi-esi sóru: I have fault > I apologise

> esi í mó shóru: it is my fault > I apologise

 

 

Alternative use of “how”

 

 

To express a degree of an adjective that in English would use the word “how” a different construction is used in Galáthach:

 

pé dam duchwís a hesi in dunachíath-sé: how stupid is that politician

 

pé dam sír a hesi in duru: how far is the town

 

The phrase “pé dam” is constructed of pé “what” and tam “quality”. Tam receives ICM after pé > pé dam.

 

 

Use of possessive phrase [pronoun]-esi

 

 

The possessive phrase “pronoun-to-be” is the Galáthach version of the verb “to have”. It is used in a number of expressions:

 

  1. to express a physical attribute

 

mi-esi dádherch búi: I have blue eyes

ti-esi dá coch: you have two legs

í-esi gwolth sír: she has long hair

 

  1. to express a physical state

 

mi-esi oghru: I am cold (I have coldness)

ti-esi tes: you are warm (you have warmth)

é-esi nan: he is hungry (he has hunger)

í-esi ónu: she is thirsty (she has thirst)

mi-esi tráieth brisú: I have a broken foot

ti-esi panthu’pen: you have a headache

e-ési achúas: he is in a hurry (he has speed)

 

  1. to express inclination or intention

 

mi-esi swanthu a hái a’n téi: I feel like going home (I have fancy to go to the house)

í-esi swanthu a gan: she feels like singing (she has fancy to sing)

 

  1. to express possession

 

mi-esi cuchul: I have a hat/hood

ti-esi téi: you have a house

é-esi ménu: he has an idea

í-esi ulánu: she is satisfied (she has satisfaction)

mi-esi in bes: I am used to (I have the habit)

ti-esi gwiroth: you are right (you have truth)

 

  1. to express possession with a specific subject

 

To express possession of a specific subject put this subject in front of the possession phrase, and use the right pronoun in the possession phrase:

 

Tascúan é-esi bath shír: Tascúan has a long stick

Iurcha í-esi gwolth gurm: Iurcha has brown hair

 

  1. to express intention of possession

 

To express intention of possession use the possessive phrase in a subordinate clause:

 

Gwéla mi o mi-esi ép: I want to have a horse (I want that I have a horse)

Gwéla í o í-esi cun: she wants to have a dog (she wants that she has a dog)

 

 

Degrees of wanting

 

 

gwel: to want

> gwéla mi ái a’n dráith: I want to go to the beach

 

gwéi: to wish

gwéia mi ápis ithí: I wish to see you

 

iantha: to desire

> iantha é ben: he desires a woman

 

swantha: to fancy/covet

> swantha í cerdhl in tiern: she fancies/covets the job of the boss

 

rinchi: to need

> rincha mi depri: I need to eat

 

 

Expression of wishing

 

 

To wish something to someone else use the particle “o” followed by the future form of the verb to be used:

 

o bí ti láen: may you be happy (that you will be happy)

och urisí su tanch: may you (pl.) find peace (that you-pl. will find peace)

 

 

Expression of encouragement to do something

 

 

Use the imperative with the 1st pers. pl. pronoun “ni”:

 

ái ni a ‘nam: let’s go swimming!

clúi ni in gwíroth: let’s hear the truth!

 

 

Expression of obligation

 

 

To say something should be done the expression “would be right for someone to do something”is used:

 

ré ví certh riem ái a’n téi: I should go home (would be right for-me going to the house)

né rhé ví certh rieth cerdhi ró hélu: you shouldn’t work too much (not would be right for-you

working too much)

 

 

Expression of presence

 

 

To express a presence or something that is happening the verb “esi” is used by itself without a pronoun:

 

esi amr: it’s raining (there is rain)

esi dóné élu insin: there are a lot of people here

esi nausé gwer in mór: there are boats on the sea

né hesi neveth a hávó: there is nothing to do (not is nothing to do)

 

 

Expression of reflexivity

 

 

To express reflexivity the pronoun “súé” is used. The pronoun indicating the person is repeated and the pronoun “súé” is attached to it:

 

apísa mi: I see

> apísa mi mi-súé: I see myself

 

molátha é: he praises

> molátha é ché-súé: he praises himself (the phonetic bridge ch- is attached to avoid two

vowels following each other)

 

dercha in ven: the woman watches

> dercha in ven í-súé: the woman watches herself

 

The reflexive pronoun can be used to indicate emphasis:

 

avóthu mi chí: I did it

> avóthu mi chí mi-súé: I did it myself

 

apisú ti chí: you have seen it

> apisú ti chí ti-súé: you have seen it yourself

 

 

Degrees of liking

 

 

cára: to love

> cára mi ti: I love you

 

áma: to like

> áma í mi: she likes me

 

náma: to dislike

> náma sí ché: they dislike him

 

lúvi: to adore

> lúva in cun ó diern: the dog adores his master

 

arwéri: to please

> arwéra í mi: I like it (it pleases me)

 

To use the verb “arwéri” with a non-pronoun subject it is used with the preposition adh- with the pronoun appropriate for the person it is directed to. The subject then follows after the preposition+pronoun:

 

> arwéra adhim: I like (pleases to-me)

> arwéra adhim depri esc: I like eating fish (pleases to-me eating fish)

> arwéra adhí ívi curu: she likes drinking beer (pleases to-her drinking beer)

 

The form with the preposition adh- can also be used when the subject is a pronoun. The subject then comes before the preposition+pronoun:

 

arwéra í adhim: I like it (it pleases to-me)

 

 

Use of preposition+pronoun to indicate object of a sentence

 

 

The form with the preposition adh- can also be used in other sentences when the subject is a complex or long phrase, to indicate quite clearly and without confusion exactly what the object is:

 

 

adhrethú dóné nep adhin: some people have attacked us

 

In this sentence the object is the phrase “some people“, “dóné nep” and the object is “us”. Because the object is quite a long way from the verb and to avoid confusion it can be stated as “adhin”, “to-us”.

 

The same sentence could also be said as:

 

adhrethú dóné nep ni: some people have attacked us

 

 

Use of pronouns in subordinate clauses

 

 

Subordinate clauses are made with the particle “o”. This particle connects two phrases but doesn’t say anything about who or what is involved in the phrases. Therefore, in subordinate clauses where the subject is a pronoun this pronoun has to be used:

 

Esi sin in ven: this is the woman

Gwéla í ívi curu: she wants to drink beer

> Esi sin in ven o gwéla í ívi curu: this is the woman who wants to drink beer (this is the woman that she wants to drink beer)

 

Esi sin in arth: this is the bear

Gwéla é depri imí: he wants to eat me

> Esi sin in arth o gwéla é depri imí: this is the bear who wants to eat me (this is the bear that he wants to eat me)

 

 

Use of preposition “a” to indicate intention or action

 

 

The preposition “a“ (to, towards, at) can be used to indicate an intention:

 

esi mi sudharíthu a dhiantha menghávi Galáthach: I am excited to begin to learn Galáthach.

 

Literal translation: am I excited to/at beginning learning Galáthach.

 

 

Days of the week

 

 

Dilúiu: Monday (Day of Lugus)

Divelen: Tuesday (Day of Belenos)

Dithóthath: Wednesday (Day of Totatis)

Ditharan: Thursday (Day of Taranis)

Dimathron: Friday (Day of Matrona)

Dicharnon: Saturday (Day of Carnonos)

Diroswerth: Sunday (Day of Rosmerta)

 

 

Note: the days of the week are feminine, regardless of their respective final vowels, because they are made of the word dí “day”, which is a feminine word, to which a name is added.

 

 

Months of the year

 

 

Samon: June (start of the year; start of the summer half of the year – Month of Summer)

Duman: July (Month of Smoke)

Ríur: August (Month of Plenty)

Anáian: September (Month of Ablutions)

Oghron: October (Month of Cold)

Cuth: November (Month of Hardship)

 

Giamon: December (start of the winter half of the year; Month of Winter)

Simison: January (Month of Half-Sun)

Échu: February (Month of Animal Tracks)

Elem: March (Month of Deer)

Édhrin: April (Month of Fire)

Canthl: May (Month of Music)

 

 

Exercises

 

 

Translate the following phrases. Use the vocabulary found in this lesson, as well as the words listed below. You can find the answers at the end of the lesson.

 

 

beautiful: tech

day: dí

certainly: in shucherth

to lie: dithonchi

cow: bó

to talk: lavar

to leave: techi

to surprise: gwerghávi

dóné élu: a lot of people

empá: to tell

sé: that

really: in chwír

to steal: cimri

all right: suvis

 

 

A: Goodday, how are you?

B: I’m very well, thanks. And you?

A: I’m fine, myself. It’s a beautiful day.

B: It certainly is. So, what do you want?

A: I want to lie to you.

B: Why?

A: Because I’m a politician.

B: I think you are running after shadows.

A: Don’t piss in the mead.

B: Go burn your feet. You’re sticking burrs on me.

A: Your teeth are on my nose.

B: And you’re a walk through thistles.

A: Well, until the pig grunts then.

B: When the moon is warmer than the sun.

A: You know you’re dancing on the edge of the blade.

B: While the cow bellows in its paddock the horse runs free.

A: How stupid do you think I am?

B: Very stupid.

A: I have a headache now.

B: I feel like making your headache worse.

A: I want to talk more.

B: You need to leave now.

A: I wish to say something.

B: Let’s hear the truth now!

A: I covet your cow.

B: You shouldn’t talk too much.

A: There’s nothing else to do.

B: I have lots of work to do myself.

A: I don’t like work.

B: That is a thing that does not surprise me.

A: There are a lot of people who tell me that all the time.

B: Really.

A: I am excited to steal your cow.

B: That’s allright. You can come and take it on the fifth Saturday in June.

A: Really?

B: No. [not really]

 

 

Answers

 

 

A: Dí wath, pé gaman a hesi ti?

B: Esi mi in rhé dhái, bráthu. Ach ti?

A: Esi mi math, mi-súé. Esi í dí dech.

B: Esi í in gerth. Duch, pé a chwéla ti?

A: Gwéla mi dithonchi adhith.

B: Péri?

A: Riveth esi mi dunachíath.

B: Ména mi och esi ti en rhéthi ós ‘cáthé.

A: Né dhwáni en in médhu.

B: Ái a dhauni to dhathráieth. Esi ti en ghlí bedhólé gwerim.

A: Esi tó dhéné gwer mó drughn.

B: Ach esi ti camath tar dhuvedhólé.

A: Dái, aven turcha in moch, tun.

B: Ponch esi in wísa gwer desach co in súel.

A: Gnía ti och esi ti en shuling gwer hách in dolen.

B: Trévíu brúia in vó en ó lan rétha in ép ríu.

A: Pé dam duchwís a wéna ti och esi mi?

B: Ré dhuchwís.

A: Mi-esi panthu’pen nú.

B: Mi-esi swanthu a hávó tó banthu’pen gwer dhruch (gwer wés, gwáith).

A: Gwéla mi lavar éth.

B: Rincha ti téchi nú.

A: Gwéia mi spá peth nep.

B: Clúi ni in gwíroth nú!

A: Swantha mi tó vó.

B: Né rhé ví certh rieth lavar ró hélu.

A: Né hesi neveth al a hávó.

B: Mi-esi cerdhl élu a hávó mi-súé.

A: Né harwéra adhim cerdhl.

B: Esi sé peth o né chwerghávi í mi.

A: Esi dóné élu och empá sí sé adhim aman hol.

B: In chwír.

A: Esi mi sudharíthu a gimri tó vó.

B: Esi sé suvis. Gála ti díái a ghávi ichí in Dhicharnon bimpeth en Shamon.

A: In chwír?

B: Né in chwír.

 

 

Epilogue

 

 

You have reached the end of this series of lessons for Galáthach, the modern Gaulish language. Everything you need to know to be able to start using the language has now been explained. The lessons will provide an ongoing reference work to help you continue to improve in the language. It is hoped that you will join the small but slowly and steadily growing international community of speakers of this rejuvenated and revived old Celtic language.

 

Swáel ach suráthu.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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